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(HLB). Taking a sample from the newly prepared sump is advisable which would help to monitor the bath and detect any anomalies that may cause future problems. Since soluble oils are highly vulnerable to microbiological attacks (bacteria, fungi, and yeast), substances such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulphur provide food for microorganisms. These kinds of organisms can deteriorate the quality of the emulsion and affect workers’ health.

Monitoring and controlling the key parameters of the sump regularly will not only allow us to reduce the MWFs hazardous exposure but also ensure the operation quality, extend the lifetime of the sump and tools and reduce the disposal amount.

The key measurements and the required range given below may differ depending on the product, however, in England and Wales the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) requires these measurements to be monitored in the given frequency below, the corrective actions to be taken if necessary, and the record kept.

bacterial and fungal formation due to the increase of tramp oil rate.

In the oversized tanks, there can be seen an increase in the development of anaerobic microorganisms caused by bad aeration, as well as Ineffective filtration performance and accumulation of deposits at the bottom of the tank.

Most commonly, the volume of the tank is recommended to be 8 times larger than the volume of the pump flow rate (l/min) for the general machining and 16 times more for the grinding operation.

There are other parameters to be monitored, such as appearance, odor, tramp oil content, pressure, flow rate, tank fluid level, temperature, conductivity, to avoid any future health and safety problems and to maximise efficiency. After all, keeping these quality parameters under control also enables a reduction of the amount of waste and subsequently the total cost.

System design To ensure maximum efficiency and sustainability, the tank dimension is also one of the important aspects to be taken into account. Using an undersized tank or low volume tank would cause MWFs to overheat which can increase the bath concentration rate due to the water evaporation. Topping up the bath with water to adjust the concentration level may increase the hardness and the chlorine content leading to the apparition of calcium soaps and corrosion problems. Other issues that might be encountered are the excessive fluid consumption caused by the fluid overflowing due to the filter blockage and accelerate


By complementing the system design with the separation equipment like filtration, skimmer, and ventilation (LEV), we can make a great contribution to the sustainability of the MWFs operations. There are several parameters to be studied before choosing equipment, such as properties of the material, flow rate and volume flow, as well as the properties of the fluid. In general, magnetic and sedimentation systems are used for separating the solid particles. However, filter papers would be more effective to separate the swarf and fine metallic particles as some of the particles such as aluminium and magnesium can be very reactive and explosive. Also, metals such as nickel, chromium, or lead can cause allergic reactions. Since cleaning the tramp oil allows fluid to be aired, skimmers and coalescence should be the indispensable parts of the separation system.

In order to minimise the health risks of MWFs mist exposure, having adequate control measures as well as installing an LEV system would together increase the air quality in the workshops.

In conclusion, achieving a more sustainable and less toxic hazardous production system without sacrificing productivity is no longer a dream. Following all the measurements starting from the product selection, continuing with a commitment to continuous maintenance and proper system design, with each of these efforts, we can take one step closer to reducing the hazard and toxicity, increase processing efficiency, and reduce the consumption of chemicals and hazardous waste generation.


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