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Lube-Tech


modifiers and extreme pressure/AW additives to improve fuel economy in the low speed-high load limit that lies closer to the engine sweet spot, whereas oil viscosity has the dominant effect on fuel economy in the high speed-low load limit.


Concluding remarks


Motor oil is a critical element in the development of low friction powertrains and using low viscosity motor oil is an efficient way to reduce friction losses in internal combustion engines. However, low viscosity oil tends to compromise wear protection if hardware technology remains stagnant, necessitating the use of FMs and AW additives in crankcase lubricants. Together with a broader adoption of synthetic base oils, FMs are expected to play an increasingly important role in future engine lubricant blends.


References 1. Environmental Protection Agency, The Safer Affordable Fuel Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Final Rule for Model Years 2021-2026, Docket Number EPA-HQ-OAR-2018-0283, published 2018.


2. European Environment Agency, Regulation (EU) 2019/631, published 2019.


3. Z. Yang, D. Rutherford, Japan 2030 fuel economy standards. ICCT, September 2019.


4. B. Zhmud, Current advances in crankcase lubricants. European Base Oil & Lubricants Summit, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Nov. 20-21, 2019.


5. B. Zhmud, A. Coen, K. Zitouni, Fuel Economy Engine Oils: Scientific Rationale and Controversies, Frontiers Mech. Eng. (submitted)


6. B. Zhmud, Superlubricity in the Real Automotive World, 2nd International Workshop, Brazil, 2018.


7. S. Yoshida, K. Yamamori, S. Hirano, T. Sagawa, et al., The development of JASO GLV-1 next generation low viscosity automotive gasoline engine oils specification. SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-1426.


30 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.162 APRIL 2021 9.


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.133 page 8


8. B. Zhmud, Engine tribology: a thorny way from lab to field, Lube 154 (2019) 20.


R.I. Taylor, R.C. Coy, Improved fuel efficiency by lubricant design: A review, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 214 (1999) 1.


10. B. Zhmud, E. Tomanik, “Optimizing the piston/ bore tribology: The role of surface specifications, ring pack, and lubricant.” International Colloquium Tribology, Esslingen, Germany, January 28-30, 2020.


11. D.E. Sander, H. Allmaier, C. Knauder, F. Strömstedt, Potentials and risks of reducing friction with future ultra-low-viscosity engine oils. MTZ Worldwide 79 (2018) 21.


12. G. Lechner, A. Knafl, D. Assanis, S. Tseregounis, M. McMillan, S. Tung, P. Mulawa, E. Bardasz, S. Cowling, Engine oil effects on the friction and emissions of a light-duty, 2.2L direct-injection diesel engine, Part 1 - Engine test results. SAE Technical Papers 2002-01-2681.


13. S. Tung, M. McMillan, G. Hong, E. Bardasz, Engine oil effects on friction and wear using 2.2L direct injection diesel engine components for bench testing, Part 2: Tribology bench test results and surface analyses. SAE Technical Papers 2004-01-2005.


14. P. Lee, M. Lochte, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine wear test development, CRC Project No. AVFL-28, SwRI, San Antonio, Texas, October 9, 2017.


15. P. Lee, M. Lochte, Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine wear test development Phase II, CRC Project No. AVFL-28, SwRI, San Antonio, Texas, September 12, 2019.


16. R.I. Taylor, N. Morgan, R. Mainwaring, T. Davenport, How much mixed/boundary friction is there in an engine - and where is it? Proc IMechE Part J: J. Engineering Tribology 234 (2020) 1563.


LINK www.bizol.com


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