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Continued from page 14


Comfort and safety devices - Air conditioning system - Windshield wipers


Steering system


Electric motor - Rolling bearings - Brushes/slip rings


Transmission - Gears


- Dynamic seals


Constant-velocity joints


Figure 3: Tribo-components of EVs


Suspension - Ball joints


- Shock absorbers KERS/Flywheel MEMS


Electric Vehicle (EV)


Wheel bearings Tyres


be utilised as an environmentally friendly approach in the creation of EV lubricants.


Ideally, Bio-lubricants are made from renewable resources, but the schemas for bio-lubes require between 0-50% of renewables. These bio-lubricants are effective alternatives to mineral oils due to their physicochemical properties, but much more expensive.


Bio-lubricants, like saturated esters and polyalkylene glycols, have displayed better lubricity properties than mineral or synthetic oils because of the oxygenated backbone. Their functional profile for EVs can be alleviated through the addition of nanoparticles or advanced polymers such as rubber, polypropylene and methylpentene, which all showed promising results in high-speed applications.


Furthermore, proper utilisation of additives (such as antioxidants and pour point depressants) and chemical modifications (such as trans-esterification and epoxidation) have also contributed to alleviate the limitations inherent to bio-lubricants. Currently, the most successful additives for high load greases is still the combination of 3% Molybdenum Sulphide (MoS2


) with graphite. 16 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.162 APRIL 2021


Future prospects for bio-lubricants include bio-olefins from algae (botryococcene (C30


H50 (C15H32 ) or ß-farnesene


) from sugar by modified yeast cells as well as non-edible oil seed crops as resources, specifically hydroxyl-fatty acids, Jatropha curcas oil (C18 Lesquerella oil (C20H38 (castor oil, hydroxy-C18


H34 O3


), Ricinus communis L. -triglyceride) and also


Pongamia pinnata (Karanja).


PHEVs and EVs are slowly integrating into our society for a greener world; yet they still require the development of an optimised lubricant. Vehicle electrification will create new classes of fluids and/or lubricants and thermal management fluids.


The question now is when will these lubricants be developed and how will the e-parc prosper as a result?


O3 ),


LINK https://koehlerinstrument.com/


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