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Lube-Tech


and driving conditions it is essential to compare oil in a ‘like-for-like’ test. One commonly used standard for this is called the Sequence VI. Two current standards, Sequences VIE and VIF (as per ASTM D8114 and D8226) use a 2012 3.6L General Motors engine that is run under well-defined operating conditions on a test stand. A standard non-friction modified SAE 20W-30 mineral oil is used as a baseline. Fuel economy at two different ageing stages is determined: FEI1 after 16 hours (fresh oil) and FEI2 after 109 hours (aged oil). This procedure is essential to discriminate between different types of FMs since some are readily oxidised and can quickly lose their activity. Different test limits are set for different oil viscosity grades, see Table 1.


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.133 page 3


bearing friction, whereas the lowest viscosity lubricant results in an overall increase in engine friction due to the greatly increased friction in the valvetrain and piston assembly. One should realise, therefore, that many engines are not designed to work with low viscosity oil. For such engines, any talk about the use of low viscosity oil is largely irrelevant.


Figure 2: Firing gasoline single cylinder engine friction measurements (Source: SwRI®


) Table 1: Sequence VIE and VIF Test Limits


Actual Sequence engine test results have a lot of scatter since fuel economy of fully formulated oils is driven by both the base oil viscosity and the additive package [4-6]. Some higher viscosity oils can achieve much better fuel economy values than their lower viscosity counterparts. However, statistically, based on tests run at SwRI®


, Fuel Economy improvement


becomes larger with decreasing viscosity until SAE 0W-8 oils are used, when a decrease in fuel economy is observed. The reason for this effect is clearly demonstrated in Figure 2. This data was obtained using a firing (i.e.: running due to fuel combustion) single cylinder gasoline engine instrumented to measure engine component friction. The continued reduction of viscosity results in continued reduction of


In Japan, a new Japanese Automotive Standards Organization (JASO) Fuel Economy Test – known as JASO M364:2019 – has been developed and may help lay the groundwork for how the next version of the Sequence VI test will look like in the future International Lubricants Standardization and Approvals Committee (ILSAC) GF-7 specification. The corresponding oil specification – JASO GLV-1 – was approved for use in Japan in 2019 [7]. For the fuel economy test, either the fired Toyota 2ZR-FXE 1.8L engine or motored Nissan MR20DD 2.0L engine can be used. The proposed fuel economy limits for the new JASO GLV-1 specification are >1.1% (firing) and >2.0% (motored) compared to SAE 0W-16 reference oil. ILSAC GF-7 is not likely to come before 2025 – if it comes at all, taking into account all the hurdles, delays, exorbitant costs, and challenges associated with the development of the ILSAC GF-6 category.


The downsides of lower viscosity The primary obstacle to continually lowering


LUBE MAGAZINE NO.162 APRIL 2021 25


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