search.noResults

search.searching

saml.title
dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
Lube-Tech Peter Lee, Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI® Boris Zhmud, BIZOL Germany GmbH, Berlin, Germany Introduction


New fuel economy standards for automobiles introduced by governments in the G20 major economies, changes in customer preferences driven by high fuel prices, and vehicle and carbon taxation have increased pressure on car manufacturers. In the USA, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have recently issued (2018) the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule [1] that sets tough fuel economy and carbon dioxide standards. These standards apply to passenger cars and light trucks, setting a moving fuel economy target that is increasing 1.5% in stringency each year from model years 2021 through 2026.


In Europe, the European Parliament and Council adopted Regulation [2] sets Carbon Dioxide (CO2


)


/km, corresponding to a fuel consumption of around 4.1 l/100 km (57.4 mpg) of petrol or 3.6


emission standards for new passenger cars and vans for 2025 and 2030. From 2021, the EU fleet-wide average emission target for new cars is set at 95 g CO2


l/100 km (65.3 mpg) of diesel. Today’s average CO2 emissions for new cars sold in the EU is around 120 g CO2


/km. Car manufacturers pay a per vehicle penalty of €95 for each g/km in excess of the target.


Japan’s new fuel economy standards issued a year ago set a target for average fleet gasoline-equivalent fuel economy of 25.4 kilometers per litre (59.8 mpg) by 2030, some 30% improvement over today’s fleet average [3].


These political and economic factors intensify research and development efforts taken by OEMs in their pursuit for better fuel efficiency. Apart from concerted efforts on powertrain electrification and the use of alternative energy sources to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a big emphasis is made on understanding tribological aspects of energy losses in powertrains and utilising current advancements in engine design, lubrication engineering and coatings to minimise those losses.


To encourage such eco-innovation, manufacturers are granted “emission credits” for deployment of innovative technologies that should – based on


independently verified data – result in reduced CO2 emissions, even though the test procedure used for vehicle type approval fails to demonstrate the effect. Manufacturers are also granted “super credits” for bringing to market zero- and low-emission cars such as battery and hybrid vehicles emitting less than 50 g CO2


/km. LUBE MAGAZINE NO.162 APRIL 2021 23


PUBLISHED BY LUBE: THE EUROPEAN LUBRICANTS INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


No.133 page 1


Fuel economy for engine oils: the formulator’s dilemma


), San Antonio, Texas, USA


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53