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47 Separation range Figure 2. Diagram of the flow modulation setup.


The AC GC x GC application focusses on middle distillates up to 450°C, separating and quantifying paraffins, Iso-paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and fatty acid methyl esters chemical classes, and reports group totals as well as selected individual compounds. This allows for detailed reporting of various types of fuel such as jet fuels (including synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), diesel and biodiesel blends. A typical chromatogram for diesel fuel is presented in Figure 3.


Quantification and Validation Figure 3. Typical 2D - plot of a Diesel B7


Quantitative calculation is performed using theoretical response factors. The calculated results are normalised for optimum accuracy and precision. The system performance and response factors are validated by analysing two separate gravimetric blends dedicated for jet fuel and diesel by comparing the found concentrations for each component versus the target concentrations in the sample certificate. See Figure 4 for a 2D plot of a gravimetric blend reference sample.


The blend consists of normal paraffins from Pentane (C5) up to Triacontane(C30) (blue in Figure 3), naphthenes from Cyclohexane up to Cyclopentadecane (green in Figure 3), monoaromatics from benzene up to hexamethylbenzene (red in Figure 3) and the poly aromatics naphthalene and Ethylnaphthalene (black in Figure 3). The blend also contains FAME C16 up to C22 (purple in Figure 3)


Other reference samples are analysed to determine and set the chromatographic area in the GCxGC 2D plot for each group-type (Paraffins, Naphthene’s, Aromatics, FAME’s).


In Figure 5 the dividing line between the chromatographic area for naphthenes (green) and Paraffins (blue) is shown.


Figure 4. 2D-plot of a gravimetric blend reference sample Repeatability and Performance


The standard deviation of the application was validated by 10 repeat runs of a B7 diesel sample. The results suggest that the application has excellent stability for the PNA + FAME groups (Paraffins, Naphthenes, Aromatics, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester). See Table 1.


The accuracy of the application was validated by comparing different jet fuels and diesels and reference material with known aromatics content established by EN12916 [1] (CEN - Technical Bodies) analysis (Petroleum


Figure 5. Chromatographic area plot Naphthenes and Paraffins


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