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Carmichael’s Concise Review


Coming Events 2018


255th ACS National Meeting March 18–22, 2018 New Orleans, LA


www.acs.org/content/acs/en/meetings/nationalmeetings/ meetings.html


FOCUS ON MICROSCOPY 2018 March 25–28, 2018


Singapore, Republic of Singapore www.focusonmicroscopy.org


2018 MRS Spring Meeting April 2–6, 2018 Phoenix, AZ


www.mrs.org/spring2018


American Society for Investigative Pathology


April 18–22, 2018 San Diego, CA


www.asip.org/meetings/EB_future.cfm


Histochemistry 2018 April 21–25, 2018 San Diego, CA


http://histochemicalsociety.org/Meetings-and-Courses/ Histochemistry-2018.aspx


EBSD 2018 - Electron Backscatter Diffraction Conference May 23–25, 2018 Ann Arbor, MI


www.microbeamanalysis.org/topical-conferences/ ebsd-2018


Atom Probe Tomography and Microscopy June 10–15, 2018 Gaithersburg, MD


www.nist.gov/news-events/events/2018/06/ atom-probe-tomography-and-microscopy-2018-aptm-2018


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2018 August 5–9, 2018


Baltimore, MD www.microscopy.org 2019


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2019 August 4–8, 2019


Portland, OR www.microscopy.org 2020


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2020 August 2–6, 2020


Milwaukee, WI www.microscopy.org 2021


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2021 August 1–5, 2021


Pittsburgh, PA www.microscopy.org 2022


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2022 July 31–August 4, 2022


Portland, OR www.microscopy.org 2023


Microscopy & Microanalysis 2023 July 24–28, 2023


Minneapolis, MN www.microscopy.org


More Meetings and Courses Check the complete calendar near the back of this magazine.


8


Figure 1 : Live endothelial cells altered by addition of thrombin. (a) AFM topographical image and (b) ultrasound bioprobe phase image demonstrating remarkable contrast from intra-cellular fi bers. Intracellular fi bers are most clearly seen in the ultrasound phase image along with stretched gaps and sub-cellular phase contrast on the nuclei region of the cells.


doi: 10.1017/S1551929518000214 www.microscopy-today.com • 2018 March


T ere have been impressive advances in recent years in electron microscopy and light microscopy, but imaging molecular structures in vitro under physiological conditions has remained elusive. In order to provide spatial and temporal resolution on the nanoscale, fi xation by chemical or freezing methods won’t work, and introducing fl uorescent or other tags would likely perturb the system. Scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), can provide high spatial resolution but is limited to identifying surface features and mechanical properties. During the past decade, acoustic-wave detection methods have been able to determine mechanical properties because elastic strain waves can travel through diff erent materials without damaging them. Combining high-frequency ultrasonic waves and AFM, such that AFM can be used as a local mechanical detector of elastic waves, shows great promise for studying the nanomechanics of materials and subsurface imaging. However, imaging studies under physiological conditions have proven challenging because of acoustic dampening in aqueous media.


Recently Gajendra Shekhawat, Steven Dudek, and Vinayak Dravid have developed an ultrasonic bioprobe with nanometer-scale resolution for in vitro molecular imaging under physiological conditions while overcoming the limitation of ultrasound attenu- ation [ 1 ]. T ey conducted two proof-of-principle studies. In one they fabricated magnetic nanoparticles embedded within the core of silica core-shell nanoparticles with an average diameter of 30 to 40 nm, and also they could identify the receptor layer coating, which was estimated to be about 5 to 10 nm. With the ultrasound bioprobe they were able to image the magnetic nanoparticles beneath the surface of the shells. In the second system of live endothelial cells (ECs), they performed subcellular nanome- chanical imaging.


Shekhawat et al. were able to overcome acoustic dampening within a fl uid using an ultrasonic bioprobe controller with integrated feedback electronics. T ey used the


Imaging In Vitro on the Nanometer Scale with Ultrasound


Stephen W. Carmichael * and James F. Greenleaf Mayo Clinic , Rochester , MN 55905 * carmichael.stephen@mayo.edu


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