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Cryo-Ultramicrotomy


Figure 8 : Comparative cryo-TEM images of a thermotropic cholesteric (chiral nematic) LC (chirally doped E7). (a) A schematic showing the director twist in cholesteric LC; (b) plunge-frozen thin fi lm supported by thin carbon fi lm. The area on the right side of the dashed line is strongly infl uenced by the surface anchoring effect. A pitch ( p ) of the helical twist is illustrated. (c) Bulk approach using cryo-sectioning where the sectioning direction was at an angle with the helical axis.


University. We thank Dr. Lu Zou, Mr. Helmut Gnägi, Dr. Liang-Chy Chien, Dr. Jeoung-Yeon Hwang, Dr. Antal Jákli, Dr. Cuiyu Zhang, Dr. Oleg D. Lavrentovich, Dr. Heung-Shik Park, Dr. Young-Ki Kim, Dr. Volodymyr Borshch, Dr. Shuang Zhou, Dr. Quan Li, Dr. Yannian Li, Dr. Chenming Xue, Dr. Daniela Pucci, Dr. Alessandra Crispini, Dr. Georg H. Mehl, and Dr. Wolfgang Weissfl og for technical assistance, LC samples, and useful discussions.


References [1] PG De Gennes and J Prost , T e Physics of Liquid Crystals , Oxford University Press , New York , 1995 .


[2] Handbook of cryo-Preparation methods for electron microscopy , eds. A Cavalier et al., CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2009.


[3] TM Clausen et al ., J Phys Chem 96 ( 1992 ) 474 – 84 .


[4] M Gao et al ., Microsc Res Tech 77 ( 2014 ) 754 – 72 .


[5] IG Voigt-Martin and H Durst , Liq Cryst 2 ( 1987 ) 585 – 600 .


[6] D Pucci et al ., J Mater Chem C 2 ( 2014 ) 8780 – 8788 .


Figure 9 : Twist-bend nematic phase - 1”,7”-bis(4-cyanobiphenyl-4’-yl)heptane (CB7CB). (a) A schematic of the twist-bend nematic structure. Comparative microscopy methods: (b) freeze fracture TEM showing well-defi ned 1D modulation, and (c) cryo-TEM of cryo-sectioned CB7CB showing no ordered structure. The arrow in (b) indicates the helical axis ( z ).


approach in CMF studies, especially with the continuous development of rapid freezing and cryo-sectioning techniques.


Acknowledgements T e TEM-related experiments were carried out at the cryo-TEM lab of the Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent State


[7] SS Gandhi et al ., Adv Mater 28 ( 2016 ) 8998 – 9005 .


[8] CM Xue et al ., Chem Phys Chem 16 ( 2015 ) 1852 – 56 .


[9] Y Li et al ., Angew Chem Int Ed 52 ( 2013 ) 13703 – 07 .


[10] V Borshch et al ., Nat Commun 4 ( 2013 ) 2635 . [11] D Studer et al ., J Struct Biol 185 ( 2014 ) 125 – 8 . [12] K Wang et al ., J Struct Biol 180 ( 2012 ) 318 – 26 .


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