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Alveolar Type II Cell Diagram


References [1] KA Cassimally . “Translating Science: Does It Still Have A Place In Science Communication?” Scientifi c American . http://blogs.scientifi camerican.com/incubator/translating- science-does-it-still-have-a-place-in-science-communication (accessed July 13, 2017).


[2] International Baccalautreate (IB) Organization, “What Are the Four Ways of Knowing Works.” TOKTalk.net. http:// www.toktalk.net/2009/12/06/what-are-the-four-ways-of- knowing-works (accessed July 13, 2017).


[3] M Ochs , Cell Physiol Biochem 25 ( 2010 ) 27 – 40 . [4] JA Whitsett et al ., Ann Rev Med 61 ( 2010 ) 105 – 19 . [5] Wikipedia, “Cotransporter.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Cotransporter (accessed July 13, 2017).


Figure 3 : Transmission electron micrograph of a thin section through an alveolar type II cell. The apical plasmalemma exhibits microvilli (arrows). Lateral membranes are not visible in this section, and the basal plasmalemma has a gray line lying over a portion of the adjacent basement membrane. The nucleus (nucleus) has areas of condensed and open chromatin, and a nucleolus is present (white arrowhead). A double-helix icon calls attention to telomerases/telomeres, which play a role in alveolar type II cell function, including surfactant production. Several profi les of rough endoplasmic reticulum are seen (RER), two adjacent to the outer nuclear membrane and one with layered protein contents. Multivesicular bodies/late endosomes (MVB/LEs), lamellar bodies (LBs), and mitochondria (M) are also present. Secretion of surfactant, as LBs, occurs at the apical membrane. Alveolar space is seen bottom left and bottom right, and a small portion of lamellar surfactant can be seen in the latter. Bar = 2.7 µm.


T us, the data shown in Figure 2 are no diff erent from


those in Figure 1 except in anatomical accuracy, which requires that both scientist and illustrator come together with the facts. T e scientist must explain details suffi ciently for the illustrator to depict an accurate event, and the illustrator must inform the scientist when the request is not understood or unclear. For the naturalist, renditions of nature are simpler because the examples are present [ 9 – 11 ], but when concepts are abstract, and entities, molecules, and particles are microscopic, then every eff ort must be made to make the depiction accurate. In Figure 2 considerable eff ort was made not to “trip up” the reader by careless symbols and omissions while keeping the diagram simple and informative. Table 1 presents general guidelines for creating scientifi c illustrations that inform and support a manuscript.


Conclusion


Illustrations and line drawings convey information in a standard manner: “artistic license” should not replace knowledge of the subject matter. In summary, one might say: “Inaccurate words cause confusion; inaccurate illustrations cause 1,000 times more confusion.”


Acknowledgements T ank you to Drs. Daniel W. Nebert and Manoocher Soleimani. Support from NIEHS Health Sciences Center and Center for Environmental Genetics grants ES00159, ES06096, and ES02847 is gratefully acknowledged.


34


Holey SiN Substrates


Silicon Dioxide Substrates


[6] DC Gadsby , Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 10 ( 5 ) (2009 ) 344 – 52 . [7] A Saito et al ., Sci Trans Med 7 ( 313 ) (2015 ) 313ra181 . [8] FX McCormack , Biochm Biophy Acta 1408 ( 1998 ) 109 – 31 . [9] California State University, Monterey Bay, Science Illustration Program, https://csumb.edu/scienceillus- tration (accessed July 13, 2017).


[10] Wikipedia, “Biological Illustration.” https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Biological_illustration (accessed July 13, 2017).


[11] R Hajar , Heart Views 12 ( 2011 ) 83 – 91 . [12] M de la Flor , T e Digital Biomedical Illustration Handbook . Charles River Media , Boston , 2004 .


[13] ERS Hodges , T e Guild Handbook of Scientifi c Illustration , 2nd Ed. , John Wiley & Sons , New York , 2003 .


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