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Cathodoluminescence System


Furthermore, the optics and detectors of the SPARC system can in principle be adapted for other spectral regimes such as the deep UV, which is relevant for dielectrics, high-bandgap semiconductors, or the mid-infrared which corresponds to the spectral regime where phonons and vibrational modes in materials can be probed. Additionally, the development of CL tomography opens up new avenues for obtaining spectroscopic information on the nanoscale in 3D. Besides tomography, other types of 3D CL imaging can also be employed in which focused-ion-beam (FIB) milling is used to make cross sections of stratifi ed media or is even used to perform in-situ slice-and- view experiments [ 21 ]. T is method could be particularly useful in the context of thick extended structures for which it is hard to use projection-based tomographic approaches. Finally, we envision that the SPARC platform could be extended to study the time and temperature dependence of CL. T ese additions would provide great experimental tools for performing more in-depth spectroscopic analysis on a large variety of materials, studying photon emission correlation statistics in single quantum emitters [ 22 ], and probing the local density of optical states in nanophotonic environments through emitter lifetimes.


Conclusion


We have shown that the SPARC system provides a versatile platform for nanoscale CL studies in a variety of research fi elds including nanophotonics, materials science, and geology. As the nanotechnology research fi eld and industrial market continues to grow, the demand for advanced nanoscale characterization and microscopy will increase further, leading to a bright future full of challenges and questions for which the SPARC system can provide innovative solutions.


Acknowledgements


This article reviews work done in collaboration with Ernst Jan Vesseur, Benjamin Brenny, Ashwin Atre, Aitzol García-Etxarri, Jennifer Dionne, Felipe Bernal Arango, and Femius Koenderink. We would like to acknowledge Prof. Jens Jahren (University of Oslo) for providing the zircon sample and Eric Goergen (FEI Company) for providing the sandstone sample. Technical support, design, and fabrication from Hans Zeijlemaker, Ilya Cerjak, Wim Brouwer, and Jan van der Linden for the AMOLF prototype are gratefully


acknowledged. The DELMIC team is acknowledged for the design of the commercial SPARC system. T e AMOLF part of this work is part of the research program of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), which is fi nancially supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. It is also supported by the European Research Council and by NanoNextNL, a research program funded by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Toon Coenen is an employee of DELMIC B.V. Albert Polman and Sander den Hoedt are co-owners and founders of DELMIC B.V.


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[17] SA Wilde et al ., Nature 409 ( 2001 ) 175 – 78 . [18] S Boggs , Jr. and D Krinsley , Application of CL Imaging to the Study of Sedimentary Rocks, Cambridge University Press , New York , 2006 .


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[20] BJM Brenny et al ., J Appl Phys 115 ( 2014 ) 244307 . [21] DAM de Winter et al ., J Microsc 243 ( 2011 ) 315 – 26 . [22] LHG Tizei and M Kociak , Phys Rev Lett 110 ( 2013 ) 153604 .


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