Data Exchange ( were established by USDOT to disseminate open source ITS software and data, respectively.

ITS 3.0: THE GRAND CONVERGENCE Just as early research into in-vehicle safety systems resulted in widespread deployment of these systems in the following years, major investments over the last 10 years into con- nected and automated vehicles, shared used transportation systems, and smart city tech- nologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) are beginning to pay off with initial deploy- ments. As has been the case throughout its brief history, ITS practitioners do not break new fundamental research grounds, but rather develop new innovations that lever- age advances in communications, sensors, and information processing and apply them to transportation.

 By 2014, pilot and research programs had shown that deployment of connected vehicles was feasible

cles, automated vehicles, MaaS, MOD, and smart cities. Beginning in the late 2000s, the bulk of

the Federal ITS research program began to be directed towards connected vehi- cles. The 2008/2009 Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Proof of Concept moved the program forward, but was not, at that time, able to demonstrate deployment readi- ness, as was originally hoped. However the Connected Vehicle Safety Pilot (2012-2014), involving 2400 vehicles, along with other research led NHTSA to conclude by 2014 that deployment was feasible, could pre- vent more than half a million accidents and save more than 1,000 lives per year. Vehicle automation began to make huge leaps for-

ing big data, cloud computing, deep neural networks (a form of machine learning), along with advanced sensors and digital mapping. Similarly, shared use transportation systems are enabled by big data, cloud computing, and the widespread use of smartphones. Transportation Network Companies (TNCs), such as Uber and Lyft, created a new alter- native to the heavily regulated and slow- to-change taxi industry. By removing large inefficiencies, they are able to offer better service at lower prices. MaaS increases the range of sharing economy options in trans- portation beyond TNCs by offering vari- ous packages of transportation options for monthly subscription fees or on a per trip basis. These systems integrate traditional transit, paratransit, taxi, TNC and perhaps other modes such as bike sharing into an integrated system offering flexible alterna- tives. This integration is further expanded by the Smart City concept, which integrates urban transportation with other city services, including public safety, smart payments, telecommunications, energy, and public ser- vices. President Obama’s Smart City Initiative identified US$160m in Federal research fund- ing for smart cities, including the US$40m that was awarded to Columbus, Ohio as the winner of the Smart City Challenge. Along with the potential benefits, these

new technologies bring new threats and concerns. Cybersecurity is a major concern not just for connected and automated vehi- cles, but for infrastructure systems and IoT systems. It has been reported that a single malware tool has compromised over 1 mil- lion IoT devices, including webcams, smart

“As has been the case throughout its brief history, ITS practitioners do not break new fundamental research grounds, but rather develop new innovations that leverage advances in communications, sensors, and information processing and apply them to transportation”

Major technical and societal develop-

ments that will drive ITS going forward include the sharing and gig economies, big data, cloud-based processing and machine learning algorithms, and IoT. All of these con- tribute to the major developments expected in transportation, including connected vehi-


ward in part due to the DARPA Grand Chal- lenges. We now see SAE Level 2 automation on the road in vehicles such as the Tesla, and varying promises for fully automated vehicles within the next 5-20 years. The success of automated vehicles is dependent upon key technologies, includ-

TVs, DVRs and smart thermostats. In Sep- tember of this year, what was then the larg- est Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) occurred, involving over 145,000 compro- mised devices. In addition, researchers have demonstrated the ability to remotely turn the steering wheel, disable the brakes and

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