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Passion Islam I December 2009 SPECIAL FEATURE I 25
this democracy in the transition from war and the arbitrament of the sword. Let us try to sum up the basic
A Comparative
capitalism to Communism. The Socialists and Communists concepts of Fascism.
As the means of production will agreed with many of these objective Government by universal suffrage is
belong to the whole of society, all but were of the opinion that political wrong. The majority of citizens cannot
citizens shall be transformed into democracy alone cannot achieve be trusted to determine public policy.
hired employees of the State. them unless it is coupled with They should be taught their duties and
Labourers will work for wages, industrial democracy. Violence may not allowed to clamour for their rights.
each worker receiving for an equal be necessary to achieve the workers’ The natural fact is the inequality of
Study of
quantity of labour an equal quantity of utopia of economic equality and men and not their fictitious equality.
products and ‘he who does not work social justice. As only the workers’ Mussolini urges, “The beneficial and
shall not eat.’ There shall be difference States can achieve real and abiding fruitful inequality of mankind can
in wages but no exploitation. international harmony the primary aim never be permanently levelled through
According to Marx, the goal of should be the establishment of the the mere operation of a mechanical
Communism is ‘from each according worker’s States. process, such as universal suffrage.”
to his ability; to each according to his Fascism, under the leadership of According to an exponent of Fascism,
needs.’ Mussolini, controlled the Government it trains its guns on the whole block of
But the advent of full Communism of Italy in 1922, and repudiated most democratic ideologies. In democratic
is not inevitable. Lenin says, ‘It of these objectives along with the regimes, people are, from time to
has never entered the head of any methods proposed to attain them. time, deluded into the belief that they
socialist to promise that the highest Fascism came to the conclusion that exercise sovereignty, while all the
phase of Communism will arrive.’ liberal democracy had its day and it time real sovereignty is exercised
(Lenin, quoting Marx in The State and has now to be transcended not by by and resides in others who may
Revolution). Socialism or Communism but by be self-seeking and tyrannical.
He further pointed out that full something quite different. It started Mussolini expresses his creed in the
Communism cannot be introduced; by revaluation of all the values of liberal following sentences: “Fascism denies
what stages, and by means of what democracy. Government by majorities that numbers, as such, can be the
practical measures, humanity will attained through the ballot was determining factor in human society; it
proceed to this higher aim - this we despised and the notion of opposition denies the right of numbers to govern
do not and cannot know. “It can only parties in the parliament or within the by means of periodical consultation.”
be said with the fullest confidence government ridiculed as a puerile Hitler was of the same opinion. Here
that expropriation of the capitalists absurdity. Similarly, freedom of thought is a quotation from My Struggle: “The
will inevitably result in a gigantic and speech was anathema. Their national State must work untiringly
development of the productive forces reading of history convinced them to set all government, especially the
of human society.” that great and powerful States were highest - that is, the political leadership
It is the aim of Communism to created and ruled by a bundle of a few free from the principle of control by
establish a classless society. individuals and by militant minorities majorities that is, the multitude - so as
who did not legislate by consulting to secure the undisputed authority of
Fascism the masses. Democratic liberalism the Individual (i.e., the strong leader)
Under this term will be included grants the right of private ownership in its stead. There must be no majority
the economic systems of both Italy as the first essential of freedom, and making decisions, but merely a body
and Germany before World War II. rectifies disequilibrium of power by of responsible persons, and the
In Germany it was called National an honoured system of checks and word ‘council’ will revert to its ancient
Socialism. The word ‘Fascism’ is balances. Fascism also grants the meaning. Every man shall have
derived from fascio meaning a right of private ownership but within the councilors by his side, but the decision
group or bundle. This movement in framework of a power-seeking State. shall be made by one Man.”
both countries was directed against Similarly, checks and balances are The alternative to democracy is
democratic liberalism which hoped contrived and controlled by the State. the rule of the self-constituted few.
that cooperation by agreement would Individual liberty is not an absolute Fascism agrees with Socialism
replace national conflicts. President right; the real entity is the State and and Communism in the view that
Wilson was a great interpreter of the the individual has no existence, except competitive economic systems based
liberal spirit. Liberalism preached as an organ of the State. Fascism is on laissez-faire have developed inner
the self-determination of peoples as against vesting the ownership of land contradictions and disputing anti-
a desirable goal; the small nations. and capital in society as a whole. social tendencies.
Minorities were to be protected State-control must not extent to the Fascism stands for State-controlled
from the oppression of majorities. abolition of private property because capitalistic system. Uncontrolled
Everywhere women, along with that would weaken the State, but capitalism cannot achieve stability,
men, were to be granted suffrage in any amount of encroachment by the provide employment or utilise the
constitutional democracies. Similarly, State is permissible, if dictated by capital resources completely. If various
labour was to be protected against the the necessities of the State. Fascism economic groups are unified by the
exploitation of employers. A league denies the control of the means of State, private ownership could be
of nations was to be set up to settle production to the workers. divested of its evils and made to work
international disputes and to rule out as a beneficial system. All economic
We gratefully acknowledge and thank the Institute of Islamic Culture for permission to reproduce Chapter 13 from his book “ Ideology of Islam “ by Khalifa Abdul Hakim.
Continued next month
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