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MICRO-DEFECTS


Causes: • Graphite degeneration on the surface. • A “leaker” casting defect caused by microshrinkage.


Remedies:


• Control gas content and release; reduce water in clay-bonded sand. • Graphite degeneration on the surface of ductile cast iron generally is ignored on large castings with thick walls and can be removed when machining the part.


VEINING


Causes: • Excess nitrogen. Remedies:


• Reduce nitrogen in melt and sand.


• Increase pouring temperature.


ONLINE RESOURCE


Images courtesy of S&B Industrial Miner- als N.A. Inc., Cincinnati. For comprehen- sive details on each type, see the “Manual of Casting Defects” 3rd edition at http:// tinyurl.com/mrbpfbt.


56 | MODERN CASTING March 2014


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