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Table 5. Percent Change From Baseline When Combining Three Innovations


Total System (including upstream)


a combination of these innovative technologies. One such strategy combines 50% coke replace- ment with advanced oxidation- hydroacoustic cavitation and a collagen-alkali silicate binder for core production. Some of these options are sym-


biotic. For example, when a water- based low-emission collagen-alkali silicate binder replaces a phenolic urethane binder, VOCs and hazard- ous air pollutants will be diminished during the binder’s first exposure to molten iron and during subsequent passes as the advanced oxidation process cleans the sand and clay grains. Additionally, the water-based system potentially improves the cleaning of the water-based binder residuals off core sand when com- pared to residual phenolic urethane binders off core sand in the green sand system at shakeout. Table 5 shows the life cycle and cost analysis for these three


Energy Fossil


Non-fossil Emissions


Greenhouse gas Criteria pollutants Particulates VOC


Foundry Facility


Materials New sand Collagen


Clay, seacoal, cereal, soda ash Coke


Coke, iron, & scrap Home scrap Ferro-alloys


Other materials & gases Costs


Energy Labor


Materials


Other costs Total


Projected Payback (in years)


-14.7 -8.3 -2.3 -4.9


-6.6 0.2


-85


17.2 -50 -50


-0.7 -8.6


-10.3 -0.7


-7.5 -8


-58.8 -60


-2 -2.1


technologies. This “Foundry of the Future” could decrease life cycle energy costs by 15%, new sand consumption by 85%, VOCs by 57%, home iron scrap by 9% and clay, coal and coke use by 50%. Overall, this could translate to a 6.6% reduction in total costs. Advanced oxidation systems that


recycle baghouse dust and sand offer clear cost savings and environmental benefits, primary reasons why 60 facilities in the U.S. have adopted some form of the technology. The operating costs savings from adopt- ing these sustainable technologies are significant, and they yield fast payback periods of 0.2-1.4 years. Given dwindling supplies and higher prices for high-grade metal- lurgical grade coal for coke making, coke replacement could provide significant cost savings.


Tis article is based on a paper (14-062) that will be presented at the 2014 AFS Metalcasting Congress in Schaumburg, Ill.


March 2014 MODERN CASTING | 53


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