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Table 2. Percent Change When an Electric Induction Furnace Replaces the Baseline Cupola


Total System (including upstream)


Energy Fossil


Non-fossil Emissions


Greenhouse gas Criteria pollutants Particulates VOCs


Foundry Facility Materials Coke (as alloy) Scrap & other materials Costs


Energy Labor


Materials


Other costs Total


9.7


-0.8 2.4


-0.9 1.7


Electric induction furnaces melt approx. half the iron in the U.S. Non-fossil fuels include nuclear, hydro, etc.


to the electricity-producing sector, as illustrated in Table 2. While emissions of particulates are lower for the electric induction furnace, life cycle emis- sions of criteria air pollutants increase 150% when electric induction furnaces are used. Greenhouse gas emissions are 58% higher, and VOCs are 88% higher. Tis is a classic example of how local air pollution standards can have indirect and deleterious effects on national emissions. Operating costs for batch induction furnaces increase 1.7% relative to the cupola furnace. (Note: Tese findings reflect Wisconsin’s electrical generation system and could differ in locations with lower power sector emissions and/or other non- fossil fuel energy sources.)


Emission Check: Replacing Coke With Anthracite Fines


To produce coke, bituminous coal


must be heated to 1,652-1,832F (900-1,000C) for 28-30 hours,


-100.0 81.8


Materials


Coke (as alloy) Ferro-alloys


Costs


Energy Labor


Materials


Other costs Total


Projected Payback (in years)


-5.6 –


-0.5 –


-0.9 0


-14 –


-1.3 –


-2.2 0


-19.6 3.8


-9.5


-157.1 -20.6 2


– -5.8 – -11.5


-100 –


58 150


-28.3 88


206.7 206.9


Energy Fossil


Non-fossil Emissions


Greenhouse gas Criteria pollutants Particulates VOCs


-0.4 -3


-3.3 -0.3


Foundry Facility


-0.6 -7.5 -8.3 -0.7


-2.8


-14.9 -3.3 -1.3


Table 3. Percent Change From Baseline When Using Coke Replacements


Anthracite Fines (20% replacement)


-0.6 -0.6


Anthracite Fines (50% replacement)


Total System (including upstream)


-1.5 -1.5


-3 -3


Pyrolyzed Bituminous Coal Bricks


ONLINE RESOURCE


Find the original research paper at www.moderncasting.com


March 2014 MODERN CASTING | 43


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