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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) indicated for the first time earlier this spring that when foundry sand is processed in thermal sand reclamation units, the contami- nants in the sand are being burned for discard, and therefore the units are subject to commercial and industrial solid waste incinerator standards (CISWI). However, metalcasting industry advocates and the American Foundry Society (AFS) pressed EPA to clarify the position, and this summer EPA issued an applicability determination that the CISWI standards do not apply to thermal sand reclamation units. Under the 2000 CISWI standards, EPA said the thermal sand reclamation units are exempt as parts reclamation units. But in the preamble to the Identification of Non-Hazardous Second- ary materials as Solid Waste rule, promulgated on March 21,

to the cost of purchasing new virgin sand and landfilling the end product,” Miskinis said. TyssenKrupp Waupaca asked a

thermal sand reclamation equipment supplier to run its sand through the system the metalcaster would be using. Te sand then was sent to the com- pany’s resin suppliers for testing. Tys- senKrupp Waupaca also performed in-house testing. “We wanted to know if we’d have

EPA identified casting sand processed in thermal reclamation units as a solid waste when combusted. This identification would have required the units to meet new emissions limits and operat- ing standards under the 2011 CISWI standards and make the investment in thermal sand reclamation difficult for metalcasting facilities to justify.

Several metalcasting companies that thermally reclaim sand, along with industry advocates from AFS, worked with EPA to show how the new ruling would impact the metalcasting industry and explore how to decrease the regulatory burden. As a result, EPA ruled the CISWI standards do not apply to thermal sand reclamation units. However, as part of the recon- sideration of the rule, the agency may decide to develop new standards for their emissions and performance data.

something better or worse,” Miski- nis said. “In our case, we found there might be an advantage to thermally reclaiming for dimensional stability.” If TyssenKrupp Waupaca is able to

lower distortion in its coremaking mate- rial, it can reduce the amount of additives used to combat distortion-related defects. “Looking at the sheer amount of

money spent on those additives, reduc- ing that by 50% would be a big win for us,” Miskinis said.

Equipment Roundup MODERN CASTING surveyed several thermal sand reclamation equipment suppliers to share details of their specific systems.

Dependable Foundry Equipment Company P.O. Box 3210 9995 S.W. Avery Street

Tualatin, OR 97062 Tel: 503-692-5552 Fax: 503-691-2544 Contact: Bill Zachary Email: Website:

Calcifire Termal Sand Reclamation System

Footprint: 8 x 15 ft. Capacity: 0.5-5 tons/hour. Key Attributes: A direct-fired fluid bed chamber introduces

sand from the top, provides full fluidization wall-to-wall with excellent efficiency and super-clean emissions. Works

on most chemically bonded sands. In Operation: Te binder material combusts in the fluid bed chamber as air and natural gas are introduced through distributor tubes. Heat-resistant steel and ceramic fiber insulation eliminate the need for refractory linings and allow the operating temperature to be reached quickly. Sand flow

20 | MODERN CASTING October 2011

through the fluid bed is easily regulated for desired effective- ness, resulting in reclaimed sand with extremely low loss on ignition that is ready for re-use.

Flotech’s casting facility is so

confident in its reclaimed sand that the material makes up 90% of the sand mixture. New sand is added to keep acid levels low. Mead doesn’t report advantages

with EBAA’s reclaimed sand, but he said it has performed up to the same standards as virgin sand. “Te highest compliment you can

pay to reclaimed sand is that it is as good as new sand,” he said.

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