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Acidification Carbon sink
See Ocean acidification. See Sink.
Afforestation Carbon source
Afforestation is defined under the Kyoto Protocol as the direct See Source.
human-induced conversion of non-forest land to permanent for-
ested land (for a period of at least 50 years) (Angelsen 2008). Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
A mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol designed to assist de-
Archaea veloped (Annex I) countries in meeting their emissions reduc-
Unique, single celled organisms which are genetically and met- tion targets. The mechanism reduces emissions through imple-
abolically distinct from bacteria. menting projects in developing (Annex II) countries which are
credited to the Annex I countries who finance and implement
Autotrophic the project. The CDM aims to not only reduce emissions or in-
Of or relating to an autotroph, an organism capable of making crease sinks but also contribute to the sustainable development
nutritive organic molecules from inorganic sources via photo- of the host country (Peskett et al. 2008).
synthesis (involving light energy) or chemosynthesis (involving
chemical energy). Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse gases are those gaseous constituents of the atmo-
Biofuel sphere, both natural and anthropogenic, that absorb and emit
Any liquid, gaseous, or solid fuel produced from plant or ani- radiation at specific wavelengths within the spectrum of infra-
mal organic matter. e.g. soybean oil, alcohol from fermented red radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, the atmosphere
sugar, black liquor from the paper manufacturing process, and clouds. This property causes the greenhouse effect. Water
wood as fuel, etc. Second-generation biofuels are products such vapour (H
2
O), carbon dioxide (CO
2
), nitrous oxide (N
2
O), meth-
as ethanol and biodiesel derived from ligno-cellulosic biomass ane (CH
4
) and ozone (O
3
) are the primary greenhouse gases in
by chemical or biological processes (IPCC 2007a). the earth’s atmosphere (IPCC 2007a).
Coastal ocean Kyoto Protocol
The region extending from the beaches out across the conti- An agreement made under the United Nations Framework
nental shelf, slope, and rise (Brink, 1993). Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that
ratify this protocol commit to reducing their emissions of car-
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) bon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases (GHG), or engag-
A process consisting of separation of CO
2
from industrial and ing in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emis-
energy-related sources, transport to a storage location, and sions of these gases. The Kyoto Protocol now covers more than
longterm isolation from the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007a). 170 countries globally but only 60% of countries in terms of
global greenhouse gas emissions. As of December 2007, the
Carbon cycle US and Kazakhstan are the only signatory nations not to have
The term used to describe the flow of carbon (in various forms, ratified the act. The first commitment period of the Kyoto Pro-
e.g., as carbon dioxide) through the atmosphere, ocean, terres- tocol ends in 2012, and international talks began in May 2007
trial biosphere and lithosphere (IPCC 2007c). on a subsequent commitment period (Peskett et al. 2008).
Carbon sequestration Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)
The process of increasing the carbon content of a reservoir A greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and
other than the atmosphere (Chopra et al. 2005). removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-
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