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Design carries a small upfront but signifi cantly large long-term impact on product cost. to back draft.—Shah


6 7 8 9


Isolated hot spots can be fed with spot risers.—Shah


Additive manufacturing opens unique design freedoms. Fillets and radii are always possible, machining a relief area can be incorporated easily, no draft re- quirements leads to lower weight, and cores can be eliminated where used due


Calculating Cost


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Bottom gating is possible for uniform fi ll- ing with the least turbulence.—Shah


Designers don’t have to account for core split lines, fl ash or veins. T ere is fl ex- ibility with the placement of feeding aids such as chills, risers, fi lters, gates, in-gates, and zircon facing cores.—Shah


32 | METAL CASTING DESIGN & PURCHASING | Nov/Dec 2016 12


Factor reasonable risk into the price.—Weiss


Hybrid approaches can be utilized for time and/or cost savings. T is means conventional patterns used with 3-D printed cores. For 1,000 parts or higher, hybrid is more cost eff ective than 3-D sand


printing for parts with a complexity factor of 56 or higher.— Brett Connor, Youngstown State University


When patternmaking requires expensive tooling, 3-D sand printing is advantageous for low quantity production of molds and cores, even for low complex- ity parts. T e cost advantage


depends on sand printing production costs.—Connor


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