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cores, bonding of cores and inspection. Several studies have identified


Figure 1. Shown is a process map of conventional sand casting.


in Figure 1. Downstream operations after fabrication of the corebox are independent of traditional and 3-D sand printing. Te primary scope of this study is associated with decision- making in the tooling of molds and cores and the fabrication of coreboxes prior to pouring. It is assumed part design complexity


will have minimal or no influence on the cost per casting in postfabrication operations including pour, shakeout and secondary operations such as heat treat- ment, machining and inspections. However, it should be noted


the consolidation of required cores (through 3-D sand printing) could substantially eliminate or mitigate flash that would generate additional finishing or inspection. Among several cost factors in sand


casting, two major cost components are the tooling and fabrication costs which involve a variety of operations to produce the mold and cores and


Figure 2. Components of tooling cost include materials, size, complexity and accuracy.


subsequent inspection. Te unit cost of a corebox depends on the number of cores, cavity geometry/size, mold and core sizes and production volume for that specific part design (i.e., number of castings per design). In the case of traditional mold making, additional operations are required with multiple cores including the assembly of the


the relationship between complex part designs which require multiple cores and its impact on tooling cost in traditional approaches to fabricate a corebox. In conventional manufac- turing of sand molds, the production cost is influenced directly by part complexity because of the need for multiple operations, special tools, skilled labor, significant tool wear and lower productivity. Another analysis showed it was evident the cost for ma- chining tooling was relatively higher for complex part designs with similar geometric volume. Components of tooling costs


shown in Figure 2 include two main components: pattern and coreboxes. Tooling cost is influenced by pattern material, part size, desired accuracy and part complexity. Hence, it can be concluded that tooling cost for complex part geometry with larger part size and greater accuracy will be significantly higher than traditional manufacturing of tooling (for similar mold-core material).


Te tooling cost in metalcasting


facilities and pattern shops usually is amortized over the number of cast- ings produced and is a critical factor that increases unit cost during low production volume. Tooling cost is a fixed initial cost in traditional mold making and this negatively impacts the number of part designs that can be produced economically. Tis is es-


Figure 3. The side (a) and angular views of the casting (transparent) and cores (gray) are shown. 26 | METAL CASTING DESIGN & PURCHASING | Nov/Dec 2016


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