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HEAL ▶▶▶TH


Black, sticky diarrhoea was reported in a flock of 6,700 lay- ing hens in India after they consumed a feed batch contami- nated with FB1 (6.5mg/kg feed) and AfB1 (0.1mg/kg). Hem- orrhages of the proventriculus and accumulations of fluid in


Figures 1–4 - Effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on villus height (1), crypt depth (2), villus depth to crypt ratio (3) and goblet cell count in broiler chicks (4) (day 21 and 42).


CON MT MT+0.2%YCWE Villus Height, µm


1000 1500 2000


500 0 DAY 21


Goblet Cell Count **


100 120


20 40 60 80


0 DAY 21 DAY 42 *** * * DAY 42


* *


Crypt Depth, µm


200 250 300 350


100 150


50 0


DAY 21 DAY 42 Villus Height to Cypt Depth Ratio


10 20


0 2 4 6 8


DAY 21 DAY 42


*** **


* *** ***


the intestine were commonly seen in the postmortem ex- aminations. The disease was then experimentally repro- duced in day-old chicks and laying hens by feeding the contaminated diet.


Mycotoxins and infectious agents In an experimental necrotic enteritis (caused by Clostridium perfringens) infection model, broiler chickens fed a diet con- taminated with 5mg DON/kg of feed were more prone to developing necrotic enteritis lesions compared to chickens on a control diet. In that particular case, DON acted as a pre- disposing factor by damaging the intestinal mucosa, lead- ing to leakage of nutrients into the intestinal lumen, there- fore providing the necessary growth substrate for extensive proliferation of C. perfringens. Another predisposing factor to necrotic enteritis is mucosal damage caused by coccidial pathogens. The interaction between toxins from Fusarium with strains of Eimeria responsible for coccidiosis in poultry has been investigated. Realistic and occasional doses of Fusarium mycotoxins have also shown delayed intestinal re- covery, up-regulation of IFN-γ and delayed recruitment of CD4+ and CD8+ cells after Eimeria challenges in chickens. Similarly, chickens challenged with strains of Eimeria and fed with either individual doses of DON and fumonisins (FUM) or in combination (1.5mg DON/kg and 20mg FUM/kg diet) showed a higher occurrence of lesions in the GIT and more oocysts in the jejunum and excreta compared to only Eimeria-challenged birds on the control diet. Further, high (and unrealistic) doses of OTA to broilers and turkeys have resulted in more severe lesion scores and greater incidence of bloody diarrhoea following an Eimeria challenge. In addi- tion, typical upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines following coccidial infection was stronger in the jejunum of birds fed DON and fumonisin in combination, suggesting an exacerbation of the inflammatory response that might lead to tissue damage.


Holistic solution To effectively manage the inevitability of feed mycotoxin contamination, it is crucial to understand the level of myco- toxin challenges so that the right steps can be taken to miti- gate any adverse effects on animal performance, produc- tion efficiency and food safety. Using a combination of powerful management tools, the Alltech Mycotoxin Man- agement Program provides a complete holistic solution to help producers take control of mycotoxin contamination and protect their business. The programme is built around next-generation risk identification technology, data analysis and insights, along with mycotoxin binder solutions de- signed to reduce the damaging effects of mycotoxins on animal health and production potential.


To effectively manage the inevitability of feed mycotoxin contamination, it is crucial to understand the level of mycotoxin challenges in the raw materials.


20 ▶ POULTRY WORLD | No. 3, 2021 References available on request.


PHOTO: PETER ROEK


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