search.noResults

search.searching

saml.title
dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
However, when BSFL consumption was included in the calcu- lation, the total dry matter intake did not differ between treatments. The total energy intake and the energy and feed efficiency were also not affected by providing larvae. Those results indicate that live BSFL can be a substitute for part of the diet of piglets without hindering their perfor- mance. Previous studies have already demonstrated that including BSFL meal in pig diets can have neutral or positive effects on pig performance, and this study confirms that this also holds true for whole, live BSFL provided to weaner piglets. It is important to note that here only a relatively small amount of live BSFL was provided, and ad libitum BSFL provi- sioning may have different effects. Directly after weaning, when solid feed intake is often low, ad libitum BSFL provision- ing could improve nutrient intake in this critical period. This in turn might support long-term good intestinal integrity and growth. When a substantial part of the diet is replaced with larvae, the nutrient composition of the pelleted feed will have to be adjusted to guarantee adequate pig performance.


Piglet welfare Key results from the behavioural observations are shown in Table 2. Across the three days during which piglet behaviour was observed (days 2, 5 and 8 after weaning), piglets that re- ceived BSFL spent less time exploring and manipulating pen fixtures and other piglets than the piglets that received wood shavings. The presence of BSFL also caused the piglets to spend much of their time exploring the litter where the larvae were located. It is interesting that this shift towards more favourable, less damaging behaviours occurred despite the BSFL being present for only a short period twice a day. Also, the piglets in this experiment were housed under rela- tively good conditions, with bedding and a lot of space. In more barren commercial pens, which can lead to more wel- fare problems related to damaging behaviours, the provision of BSFL probably has even greater benefits for piglets. When confronted with an unknown environment containing an unknown object, piglets in the BSFL treatment exhibited more exploratory behaviour towards the object and spent less time freezing, indicating a reduced neophobic response. It is possible that the rewarding feedback caused by explor- ing and consuming BSFL creates positive associations with novelty in these piglets, making them more able to cope with unfamiliar situations. Such skills can be beneficial, as com- mercial piglets housed in large groups often come across changes in their physical and social environment.


What comes next? The current exploratory study successfully demonstrated that providing small amounts of live BSFL daily to piglets after weaning can improve piglet welfare while maintaining piglet performance. The next logical step is to investigate whether these effects also hold for piglets housed under more barren


commercial conditions. Experimenting with different amounts of BSFL provided in different ways in these condi- tions, and combining this with research on nutrient uptake and the digestibility of larvae, will help construct a complete picture of the value of BSFL as both feed and enrichment. Ad- ditionally, the effects of providing BSFL during different phas- es of pig rearing are yet unknown. Providing BSFL before weaning may further ease the weaning transition, and later in life BSFL can be a high-quality feed source that can support pig performance. Overall, the prospects of using BSFL as edi- ble enrichment are clear, although more research is needed before commercial application is possible.


Providing live black soldier fly larvae to piglets could ease the weaning transition.


Table 2 – Percentage of time spend on welfare- related behaviours on day 2, 5 and 8 combined, of piglets provided with wood shavings or live BSFL.


Behaviour


Pig-directed oral manipulation Exploring pen Eating feed


Exploring floor


Wood shavings 2.4 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 0.7 19.8 ± 1.1


Live BSFL 0.9 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.4 33.0 ± 1.0


▶ PIG PROGRESS | Volume 37, No. 7, 2021 p


<0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001


29


PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44