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E. coli strains. At the highest registered dose (40 mg/kg body weight) the estimated intestinal concentration is above 1,100 μg/g, which exceeds the MIC90


value of all E. coli strains test-


ed. Those results indicate very high sensitivity of the E. coli strains, predicting high efficacy of paromomycin at the dose range registered for therapeutic use.


Susceptibility testing and prudent use Susceptibility testing of E. coli isolates, knowledge about anti- biotic pharmacokinetics and prudent use of antibiotics help to limit development of antimicrobial resistance of E. coli strains. PK/PD profiles of apramycin and paromomycin show that both antibiotics are ideal options for successful enteric colibacillosis treatment. Future dosing regimes need to con- sider these PK/PD concepts for provision of consistent high therapeutic effects and to prevent therapeutic failures.


A case of diarrhoea in a neonatal piglet.


aminoglycoside antibiotics. Both antibiotics are non- absorbable and concentrate in the small and large intestine of pigs after feed and water medication and, as a result, they mainly exercise their activity in the gut. In pharmacoki- netic studies the concentration of both antibiotics was de- termined in the small and large intestine during in-feed and water administration at the registered dosage. Access to recent antimicrobial susceptibility data helps guide veterinarians in selecting the most appropriate antibiotic for treatment of colibacillosis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing on E. coli strains is conducted routinely in many countries. Those data are put into relationship to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data for prediction of successful treatment.


Apramycin testing results Apramycin MIC testing results from European E. coli strains are put into relationship to apramycin intestine concentra- tions achieved at treatment dosage after feed medication (see Figure 1). The apramycin concentration in the small intestine exceeds the MIC90


value of 90% of the tested EU E. coli strains. These


results indicate very high sensitivity of the strains, predicting high efficacy of apramycin in the case of its metaphylactic and therapeutic use.


Paromomycin testing results Paromomycin MIC testing results from European E. coli strains and the paromomycin concentration achieved at treatment level after water medication are put into relationship and shown in Figure 2. The paromomycin concentration in the small intestine achieved at the lowest registered dose (25 mg/kg body weight) exceeds the MIC90


value of 88% of the tested EU


25 20


15 10 5 0


Figure 1 - Apramycin MIC ranges for E. coli strains and PK relationships following in feed medication at therapeutic dose.


Belgium Denmark 35


30 25 20


15 10 5 0


France Germany NL Poland Spain UK 33.2µg/g* 45.0µg/g (at 8mg/kg bw)


0.25


0.5


1


2


4


MIC (µg/ml) 8


16


32 * Apramycin small intestine concentration 12 hours after treatment cessation.


64


128 256


Figure 2 - Paromomycin MIC ranges for E. coli strains and PK relationships following water medication at therapeutic doses.


Belgium Denmark France Germany NL Poland Spain UK


760µg/g (at 25mg/kg bw) * >1100 µg/g (at 40mg/kg bw)


0.5


1


2


4


8


16 * Estimated paromomycin small intestine concentration.


MIC (µg/ml) 64


32


128 256 512 1024 >1024


▶ PIG PROGRESS | Volume 37, No. 7, 2021


11


PHOTO: HUVEPHARMA Number of isolates Number of isolates


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