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PARTNER FEATURE ▶▶▶


Mycotoxins in swine: precise, holistic management


Mycotoxins affect the health and performance of pigs, so it’s essential to conduct a full mycotoxin risk assessment. A holistic approach will make it easier to understand each producer’s situation and how to deal with mycotoxins.


BY JULIA DVORSKA, PHD, GLOBAL SCIENTIFIC MANAGER FOR MYCOTOXIN MAN- AGEMENT, ADISSEO


P


igs are the farm animals that are most sensitive to mycotoxins. Aflatoxins suppress the immune system, but the first sign of dietary aflatoxin contamination is a reduction in feed intake. Clinical signs, depending


on the level of contamination, range from reduced growth to


hepatosis and death. Among the trichothecenes, deoxynivale- nol and T-2 toxin are the most relevant for the pig industry. T-2 toxin inhibits feed intake, while deoxynivalenol also reduces feed intake, slows down pig growth and also causes vomiting. Ochratoxins are both hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic, while also causing other chronic toxicities. Reduced growth, decreased weight gain and renal lesions are symptoms of ochratoxin intoxication. Zearalenone mainly causes oestrogenic effects in pigs. In pregnant sows it increases the occurrence of abor- tions and stillbirths. Feed contamination leads to swelling and reddening of the vulva, false heats and false pregnancy in non-pregnant sows. Fumonisins target the liver, lungs and pancreas and cause pulmonary oedema in pigs.


The MycoMan Mobile App is a simple way of evaluating the mycotoxin chal- lenge for a specific group of animals and is used to calculate the dose of myco- toxin deactivator required to effectively control mycotoxins.


24 ▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 29, No. 1, 2021


Identifying risks so you can adopt strategy From the field to the feed, mycotoxin production is a cumula- tive process. It is controlled by several factors, the most im- portant being climatic conditions and agronomic practices during cultivation. However, each mycotoxin has its own pat- tern of development, so crop contamination is different each year, both in terms of quantity and mycotoxin type. This means that the risk is ever-present and ever-changing. There are several options for identifying mycotoxin risk. A forecast of crop contamination is available through predic- tion models, such as MycoMan Predict, which was developed by Adisseo and Syngenta in partnership. Harvest surveys pro- vide analytical values of mycotoxins in maize and wheat, both post-harvest levels and levels before storage. These two tools establish the risk of mycotoxin contamination for all the com- ing year, allowing corrective measure to be put in place. For example, contaminated batches can be discarded or diluted in the feed mill. Two types of mycotoxin tests are available: rapid test kits (mainly for raw materials) or lab tests (for finished feed). Rap- id test kits provide results in a few minutes, but they do not detect masked mycotoxins. If they are used for raw materials, it is possible to miss important ingredients with inclusion rates below 5-10%. Small inclusions with high contamination rates can cause significant contamination of the finished feed.


PHOTO: ADISSEO


PHOTO: HANS PRINSEN


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