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MYCOTOXINS ▶▶▶


Table 3 – Effect of treatments on the mycotoxins levels (ng/ml) in the serum from sows and piglets. T1


T2


Sows Day 109 of gestation ZEN


α-ZEL b-ZEL DON


de-DON


Day 26 weaning ZEN


α-ZEL b-ZEL DON


de-DON


Piglets at weaning ZEN


α-ZEL b-ZEL DON


de-DON


0.066 0.148 0.057 0.445 -


0.43a 0.94a 0.23a 3.07 0.11


0.024 0.011 0.042 0.045a 0.040a


0.076 0.266 0.053 0.477 -


1.08b 3.09b 0.37b 3.21 0.53


0.020 0.012 0.040 0.045a 0.040a


T3


0.066 0.258 0.081 0.929 -


1.11b 3.42b 0.53c 2.10 0.15


0.024 0.040 0.041 0.099b 0.058b


LSD


0.0443 0.2960 0.0378 0.8210 -


0.281 0.984 0.131 1.919 0.543


0.0232 0.0279 0.0035 0.0469 0.0160


a-c Different superscripts indicate significant differences among treatments (P ≤ 0.05). ZAN, α-ZAL, b-ZAL were not detected in the samples.


serum levels of mycotoxins. However, at the end of the trial, i.e., day 26 of lactation, a significant increase was observed in the serum levels of ZEN, α-ZEL, and β-ZEL of sows fed diets T2 and T3 when compared with the control (T1). Although there were no significant differences in the levels of ZEN in the serum taken from piglets, the serum levels of DON and de-DON were significantly high in the piglets fed T3, together with a trend of increased α-ZEL level in the serum from pig- lets (Table 3). As expected, dietary exposure to ZEN and DON at these levels did not affect the performance of sows and piglets. Furthermore, there was a decrease in backfat thickness com- bined with a decrease in serum leptin in sows exposed to 300 ppb ZEN during the last week of gestation. Backfat consists of water, collagen and lipid, and is also a source of various hor- mones including leptin, which is positively correlated with backfat thickness.


Decreased serum levels of oestradiol Serum levels of oestradiol were significantly decreased in piglets from sows fed HiZEN diet from day 109 of gestation or from farrowing up to weaning. In the past, we have shown that ZEN exposure during lactation would result in a deple- tion of the pool of gametes present in the ovaries of female piglets due to the oestradiol depletion caused by ZEN. There- fore, although production performance was not impaired, the exposed female piglets should not enter reproduction


16 ▶ ALL ABOUT FEED | Volume 29, No. 1, 2021


programmes. There was a significant decrease in the serum GLP1 and an increase in calprotectin serum levels in piglets that were exposed during the last week of gestation and during lactation, when compared to mycotoxin exposure during lactation only. Increased serum calprotectin levels indicate that inflammation was taking place. The decrease in the serum levels of the gut hormone GLP1, which also has an anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine, supports the hy- pothesis that piglets from the sows fed HiZEN and DON diets were experiencing inflammation.


Conclusions In conclusion, it is possible to determine ZEN, DON, and their derivatives in the colostrum and milk from sows fed contami- nated diets with mycotoxins at practical EU levels. Exposure to HiZEN resulted in a decrease in backfat thickness at farrow- ing and this effect was correlated with a decrease in leptin se- rum levels in sows. Also, such an exposure resulted in a de- crease in the serum oestradiol levels of sows and piglets. Although the transmission of mycotoxins did not affect the performance of suckling piglets, an inflammatory process was taking place. More interestingly, there was an increase in DON and de-DON serum levels in suckling piglets exposed to the HiZEN diet during the last week of gestation and during lactation.


References upon request P-value


0.84 0.64 0.27 0.11 -


<0.001 <0.001 <0.01 0.42 0.22


0.91 0.08 0.59 0.05 0.05


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