66th Annual Technical Conference & Exposition

Ashlock, Continued... Within a particular refractory category,


characteristics, mining, processing, and milling can result in different material properties. In addition, varying levels of impurities can greatly separate a mineral from one supplier to another. Contaminants such as iron and the alkalis can have drastic effects on the performance of the shell system which impact casting quality. Impurities in the face coat can lead to mold-metal reactions that effect the surface finish of the casting and removal of the shell. Impurities in the backup layers can lead to decreased strength, increased thermal expansion, and increased creep which negatively affect the dimensional stability of the casting. Understanding the source of the impurity, the location of the impurity in the shell, and the potential impact of the impurity is crucial to consistent casting quality.

1:30 p.m. – 2:15 p.m.

Paper No. 4: Analysis of Surface Tension of Materials to Improve Coating Performance of Wax Coating

Gavin Dooley, REMET UK, Ltd., Booth 201 The surface energy of materials used within the Investment Casting sector is currently not well understood and rarely investigated within the industry. REMET®

has acquired and tested the surface tensions

of binder materials and their effect on the slurry properties. Shell systems are a blend of many complex ingredients within a tank which can influence the performance of your process. In many cases, attention is paid to the plate weight and/or viscosity as a method of control for the prime slurry on a regular basis. This paper outlines the measurement of the surface tension of the binder as a method of further understanding the wetting properties of the slurry within the process. Analysis of wetting agents, concentrations and effect on the wettability of waxes is completed to understand how this parameter can affect the slurry performance. Utilizing sessile drop testing within REMET’s R&D

facility, the raw materials of waxes are also being developed to better understand and increase the affinity of wax to water-based slurries to improve coating performance. Particular attention is being drawn materials to reduce hydrophobicity of wax to slurries. Furthermore, REMET has also been investigating

surface free energies of peripheral materials and their effect on the coating effectiveness. Patternwash and release agents have also been investigated as these all impact the final surface area of materials. The results show some very interesting correlations between traditional and non-wash release agents.


3:00 p.m. – 6:00 p.m.

2:15 p.m. – 3:00 p.m.


Paper No. 5: A Comprehensive Analysis of Viscosity Measurements Sam Duncan, Ransom & Randolph, Booth 213 Viscosity, the measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow, is one of the most evaluated and controlled parameters in the shell room. Viscosity is a universally accepted industry test that offers a quick and easy go/no go check to determine if a slurry is fit for use. Using a flow cup, the viscosity measurement is determined by the time it takes for the cup to completely empty after being submerged, then extracted from a slurry. Too high of a slurry viscosity could result in insufficient shell coverage in difficult geometries, extended dry times or an increase in shell material usage. If viscosity is too low, the shell may not be strong enough to handle the stresses associated with dewax, burnout and casting. Viscosity measurement is subject to a great deal of variation based upon equipment and methods used, as well as inconsistencies between operators. This paper will present a comprehensive analysis on the impact these variations have to the accuracy and precision of the viscosity measurement; specifically exploring results from various flow cups, end points, operators and slurry types. From these results, we will conclude best practice methods and equipment for repeatability of viscosity measurements. A correlation of the methods and equipment will also be determined for cross referencing the measurements.


Expo break sponsored by CRONIMET TUESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 2019

8:00 a.m. – 8:10 a.m.

8:10 a.m. – 8:55 a.m.

WELCOME INTRODUCTION Process Control Standards Update Nip Singh, S&A Consulting Group LLP, ICI Director

Paper No. 6: Culture and Employment Strategies for Forward Thinking Companies Aaron Phipps, MPI, Inc., Booth 312 In today’s business climate, it is as important as ever to develop and retain a strong workforce. In order to develop and maintain this workforce, MPI continually works to develop strategies that support our team and maintains MPI’s competitive edge. Some of the strategies MPI has used successfully over the past few years include ESL instructors, sign language interpreters, recruiting college students, engaging existing employees and collaborating with local businesses.

October 2019 ❘ 27

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