Produced in Aluminum and Steel

the power ranges typically from 450 -36,000Kw. The Waterjets are powered by diesel, electric or hydraulic drive units and come in 3 forms: • Tunnel – the simplest design • Azimuth – Externally mounted with 360-degree control

• Jet – Subsurface waterjet with some directional control

Power Generation & Industrial (Pumping Liquids and Gas) Like

the aerospace turbine industry

IGT use a significant number of PIC components. With the increasing demand for electricity consumption (33% over the next 10 years) and the drive for the lowering of the carbon footprint there are a few regional incentives to use gas as the fuel of choice whilst pursuing low emission green technologies. Some of the main manufacturers of

IGTs are: • GE • Ansaldo Energia • Siemens • MTU • Mitsubishi Hitachi Power • Sulzer • KHI • Solar Turbines

IGTs used in Industrial applications

such as pumping oil/gas can be variants of both aerospace and power units modified to cope with the cyclic conditions they are operating under and the fuels that they will operate with.

Early threats to the future of the IGT business, and hence the PIC business, are mainly coming from “green” technology in power generation from: • Solar • Wind • Hydro and tidal

All these new technologies have issues with disruption and variable output, but once continuous electrical output can be assured from energy storage more commercial applications can and will be developed.

In the wind turbine market, the ®

main manufacturers are: • Vestas • Siemen Gamesa • Goldwind • GE • Enercon

As can be seen, only a small number of manufacturers participate in more than one of the different technologies used and partnering is common.

Unfortunately for the PIC industry,

Solar and Wind electricity generating plants use very few investment castings. Hydroelectric

power generation

has been with us for many years but in more recent times companies have looked at Tide Mills using dynamic tidal power and/or tidal lagoons. Turbine technology has also moved on with axial and crossflow technologies. There continues to be an opportunity for PIC in this market.

Airframe There are many airframe manufacturers. In recent years there has been a degree of rationalization and growing markets developing their own commercial aircraft, such as the Comac C919 in China. The two largest players (Boeing and Airbus) have developed alliances with other companies. Airbus have also taken the step to manufacture planes in America and China in addition to the original European base. The leading USA, European and Russian manufacturers include: • Boeing • Gulfstream • Airbus • Pilatus • Bombardier Aerospace • Textron • Dassault Falcon • Oborouprom • Embraer Empressa • United Aircraft Corp

Light alloy and titanium alloys PIC parts are seen in many sections of the aircraft: • Airframe structural • Electronic boxes • Fuel pipe systems

Future developments: • Increasing use of magnesium alloys to gain further weight savings

• Increased use of fibre and graphene matrix composites, imparting strength and weight savings

Automotive This report concentrates on cars but some of the trends can also be applied to the truck market. The current car market uses surprisingly few PIC produced parts and the most by volume are turbocharger wheels and some valve trains (cam valves). My notes will focus on turbocharger wheels.

In 2018, 95.6M cars and trucks were produced globally: Country China USA

Japan India

Germany Mexico

South Korea

Percent % 27.8 11.3 9.7 5.2 5.1 4.1 4.0

This number varies slightly depending on the database you use, but basically manufacture is controlled by relatively few major players. Historically

most petrol/diesel

engines have become smaller, more powerful per cc and more fuel efficient with a significant increase in the use of turbo-wheels, with one to four being used in each vehicle. In the early days, turbos were large diameter bulky parts with relatively simple blade geometry. This gave rise to turbo lag and an initial loss in power to the engine, which meant that only larger engines could benefit from their use. With technology and design advances nearly all cars of any size now have turbo options. What is the future development for

the turbo? Small engines:

• Faster rotation giving less lag in the vehicle acceleration performance

Continued on pg 14 October 2019 ❘ 13

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