Continued from pg 13

• Vane geometry changes to increase compression and airflow

• Alloy changes to increase operational temperature and spin speeds i.e. increasing power and efficiency and when possible reducing weight (inertia)

• Hollow design, again weight saving

• Use of advanced ceramic matrices for higher operational temperatures, to enable increased rotational speed and weight saving

• Use of thermal barrier coatings to increase operational temperatures

Larger engines:

• For immediate power to the larger engines there has been a move to supplement the traditional turbo arrangement (Hot and Cold end turbos) with electric motor driven turbos, giving no lag and an instant response from a lightweight design. Can this fully displace the traditional turbo design?

Though all the design activity in the turbo is having a positive effect on the reduction in emissions produced from the vehicle engine, the market is seeing one of the biggest changes to date, with the demands for minimal or even zero polluting vehicles. The initial movement in this the

direction was development of

hybrid cars using electric at low speeds and converting to fuel usage at a certain speed or rpm. In August 2019, Hyundai started offering the Sonata hybrid with a solar roof aimed at delivering 60% of the electric power requirement. Fully electric cars have been around for some time now and are gaining momentum, with low emissions being the aim. However, car mileage range and the poor charging infrastructure in service stations, car parks, workplaces and homes are currently an issue, particularly when embarking on longer road trips.

Also in the marketplace are the

hydrogen fuel cell cars, trucks and trains. Pictured above is the Honda Clarity.

In November 2018, Tesla an- 14 ❘ October 2019 ®

nounced the development of the elec- tric truck, and Thor trucks launched the ET-One Semi-Tractor early in 2019. Most of the companies listed below are developing electric truck options which we will see on our roads in the coming years: • Mack • FusoDAF • Renault • Peterbilt • AB Volvo • DAF • Freightliner

In summary, the world population

is growing, and as wealth is accumulated there is an expectation/ demand from people to have their own vehicles, unless access to cost effective public transport or shared transport is forthcoming. Overall the number of vehicles will continue to increase but the use of turbos in their present form will ultimately decline as alternative fuels and the need for environmental change gains momentum.

Medical The band Queen once sung “who wants to live forever”. Today there is an expectation that each generation will be healthier and live longer than the previous generation. The question is, how do we achieve this with an acceptable quality of life? In 2019 the world population is forecast to reach 7.7bn with a growth rate of 1-1.25% a year: Country China India USA

Indonesia Brazil


Pop. % 18.4 17.7 4.3 3.5 2.8 2.7

Pop. M. 1,420 1,369 329 269 212 204

UN figures suggest the over 60s population will grow from the current 962m to 2.1bn by 2050 and to 3.1bn by 2100. Therefore, there will be an increasing need/market for all types of replacement body parts, including prosthetics.

In 2017 surgical prosthetic procedures conducted were: Knee Hip

Shoulder Ankle Elbow

1.087m 992k 30.7k 4.7k 2.8k

Since the early development of prosthetics, the life expectancy of the prosthetic has increased from 10 years to the following: Prosthetic

life exceeding Hip

Knee Partial Knee

15 yrs 89%

93% 77%

25 yrs 58%

82% 70%

So, with an increasing and aging population it is expected that this market will increase with time. The fly in the ointment is the cost of orthopedic procedures and the willingness for the National Health Services and insurance companies to cover these costs. This may adversely impact on the growth rate of the market. The PIC industry is particularly

involved in production of medical implants as above developed by: • Depuy Synthes • Smith & Nephew • Zimmer Biomet • NuVasire • Stryker • Global Medical • Medtronic • Wright Medical Group • Arthex • Corin Group

Besides prosthetics, PIC industry also produces: • Instruments – medical and dental use

• Metal mesh and splints • Dental implants

Potential questions we should ask

ourselves are: • Will Alloys change from the current CoCrMo and titanium-based alloys?

• Will alternative technologies replace or complement the PIC process?

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