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TECHNICAL Economic injury level EIL Management activity Economic Threshold (ET)


Pest Population Level


Time


Figure 1. Diagram showing the relationship of the economic threshold to the economic injury level and time of taking action through management activity in response to pest population level.


IV. Time delays associated with the IPM tactics utilised.


The development of models will be increasingly required as we adopt new technologies such as biological control. Physical, cultural, biological and chemical controls are all interlinked and aren’t used in isolation. Professional turf management has been a bit of a late arrival at the party, we’ve been pushed toward looking at biological controls rather than embracing them enthusiastically. When asked what practitioner’s thoughts are relating toward biological controls, my experience is that there is a shuffling of feet, followed by “I haven’t used them”, when asked why, the muttered response is invariably “they’re not very effective because you’ve got to get the environment right, temperature and moisture and timing.” Contradictory statements, at odds with the results obtained in other parts of the horticultural sector whose members have been successfully utilising a variety of


technologies for several decades. So what can we learn from them?


Biopesticides


‘Biopesticide’ covers a wide spectrum of potential products used as plant protection products, the Health and Safety Executive divide these into four broad categories:


• Products based on pheromone and other semiochemicals (for mass trapping or trap cropping)


• Products containing a microorganism (e.g. bacterium, fungus, protozoa, virus, viroid)


• Products based on plant extracts • Other novel alternative products


Approvals are granted by HSE’s Chemicals Regulation Division (CRD) on behalf of Ministers under a range of specific pesticide related legislation.


The Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board (ADHB) funded a project called AMBER (Application and


We know that the form, quantity and timing of nutrition is one of the


key determinants of the composition and playing quality of the sward, as is our approach to irrigation and aeration


Spraying at St Mellion International Resort 142 PC April/May 2019





Population size


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