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Drug-Free Workplace Policy & Procedures, including a drug screening component integral to the policy.

Policy Factors that Make a Difference Tere are several testing features that

are called for in an effective Drug Free Workplace policy. Firstly, monitored col- lections are a must. Unmonitored testing is a waste of time and dollars; it is simply too easy to substitute or adulterate a sample if the delivery of the sample is not monitored. Each collection must be directly observed; the collector must observe the sample leaving the body and going directly into the vessel provided. Any deviation from this protocol is considered invalid. Likewise, specific gravity and pH levels are tested as well as the possible use of adulterants in considering the validity of the sample. To avoid a false positive, the initial (A) sample is recorded with the (B) sample sent to the government laboratory for confirmatory results. Most donors admit the accuracy of a positive drug test, thus requiring only those that are contended as false positives to be sent for confirmation. Four types of drug tests are also used:

• Pre-Employment—Any employer can expect a prospective employee to present within 24 hours notice to the screening officer to provide a urine sample.

• Suspicion/Reasonable Cause—A drug test is required when an employee is suspected to be inebriated, with compro- mised decision-making or affect, and in some circumstances, aſter accidents with equipment or vehicles.

• Random—Te screening agency has a list of all employees in the workplace. Numbers representing employees are pulled from a pool and those employees

present for screening with no notice. It is variable per company as to whether pulled numbers are immediately placed back in the pool or held out for a certain length of time before being re-entered in the pool. (Employees are not aware of the variability and believe they can be called at any time). At some participat- ing companies, the decision-makers can decide to have high risk and/or safety sensitive positions in the workforce be screened three times more frequently. In these circumstances, employees are aware of the status of their position.

• Target Testing—Once an employee has tested positive for a drug, he or she is placed in a separate pool and can be targeted any time for up to a year before returning to a normal random pool aſter a year of testing drug-free. Most of our

client companies have a ‘three strike’ clause so, if there is a second positive test, there is then only one more chance to retain employment. It is oſten at this point that the individual opts for counseling in an atempt to address their drug dependence.

The Gold Award Not all companies take advantage of all

four types of tests, but when they do, the transformation can be dramatic—there is a change of company culture. Buterfield & Val- lis, a local company and leader in Bermuda, has become the standard of how to get it right. Teir business is to import and distribute food from the oatmeal we have at breakfast to the food prepared at our finest hotels. In mid-1999, second generation CEO

and past Iron Man triathlete Jim Buterfield feared that initiating a Drug-Free Work-

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