Module 1 • Arctic Exploration: Navigation
Activity 1-2
at an average of nine miles (15 km) per year due to the complex For each team:
fluid motion in the outer core of earth. Declination is the differ- - Compass
ence between true north and magnetic north expressed in degrees.
- 3 yards of twine
Depending on location, declination can greatly affect the orientation
- Yard (Meter) sticks
- Towel roll
Maps also distinguish size or scale. The scale relates how much real
distance is represented by each unit of measurement on the map. For
- Scissors
example, a scale of 1:24,000 means that one inch on the map equals
24,000 inches on the ground. Most general purpose maps are 1:62,500
Vocabulary:
where one inch on the map equals one mile in the field. The maps
exploration, discovery,
normally used on GoNorth! expeditions are 1:250,000. However, no
topographic map,
such maps are available for the Chukotka region. Instead the team in
scale, latitude, longi-
the field is using aviation maps at 1:1,000,000,000.
tude, cardinal direc-
tions, magnetism
Note: For more background knowledge on topographic maps see
Teacher Notes 1 “Topographic Maps.”
Assessment:
Upon completion of
Procedure:
this activity students
should:
Part I
- Be able to identify
the basic principles
1. Project the “Historic Map” of Chukotka available online in Route
& Maps of the Logistics section at PolarHusky.com. This is the first
of a map and relate
detailed map of the Chukotka region. It was made from the discov-
the significance of
eries of the Danish explorer Vitus Bering as a captain on a Russian
scale.
ship. On this same expedition Vitus Bering “discovered” the west-
gitude, and eleva-
to the Russians until they sold it to United States in 1867 for \$7.2 tion for locations
million. (Student Page 1-2a
“Expedition Map”).
Identify the time period when this map was created. Discuss how
- Make a compass
the map was made and that finding and mapping new lands was
an important purpose for European explorers (from early 1400s)
(Student Page 1.2b
up until the early 1900s, when most places had been “discovered.”
“Compass”).
Why do they think that is? Introduce students to the Laws of
- Use bearing and
Discovery established by the European countries (see background
distance to plot
information).
and then establish
a course (Student
2. Pass out Student Page 1-2a “Expedition Map.” This is one of the
Page 1-2c “Route
maps that the expedition team will use for navigation on the trail.
Plotting”).
Using the map views and questions, introduce the characteristics
of maps: title and location index (Map View A); map legend (Map
View B); scale (Map View C); and latitude, longitude, and elevation
(Map View D).
For a detailed overview of latitude and longitude see Teacher Notes 1-2 “Graticule.” This infor-
mation is also available online under Compass in Polar Husky A to Z of the Logistics section at
PolarHusky.com.
3. The route of this year’s expedition will have the team covering more than 1,000 miles (1,600
kilometers) and they will have just two maps to cover this distance. In comparison, last year’s
expedition was about 750 miles (1,200 kilometers) and the team used 18 maps! When possible,
Team GoNorth! will use maps that are 1:250,000 scale. But the largest scale it has been possible to
obtain for the Chukotka region is 1:1,000,000,000.
PolarHusky.com