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Passion Islam I February 2010 SPECIAL FEATURE I 25
A Comparative
made so helpless that their political has progressively tried to remedy the verities of the moral law, they became
liberty was of no avail. Instruments evils that ensue from uncontrolled selfish and tyrannical: they were given
of production became more and capitalism but the strains and stresses great latitudes to reform themselves,
more costly and could be possessed generated by the nature of the system but when they did not heed the Signs
by only very large capitalists either continue to create social unrest. of the Lord, the day of reckoning came
singly or in corporation. As wealth Islam is based on liberty, fraternity and they were doomed. “God has set
Study of Ideologies
was concentrated at the one end, and equality and its philosophical up a balance of right and wrong; the
poverty grew at the other end. Society outlook is theistic. All philosophies balance is so sensitive and unerring
began to split up into classes of of life and fundamental attitude that every atom is weighed in it, and the
haves and have-nots. Formerly, when towards existence have great result becomes visible in due course.”
the instruments of production were practical consequences. We have The Islamic theory of history follows
less costly, the peasant, the worker, seen that the philosophy of orthodox from its materialism. The two outlooks
the craftsman became easily the Communism is materialistic and are so diametrically opposed that it
owners of these instruments. Now atheistic. Over and against that. Islam is impossible for a theistic Muslim to
the independent craftsman lost his believes that life has a spiritual origin, become a Marxian Communist.
independence and became a cog a spiritual background and a spiritual The Fascists replaced the worship
in a colossal capitalistic, machine. goal and purposes. The universe is of mere production and equitable
Liberal democracy had secured for not governed by blind mechanistic distribution, by the worship of the
him the right of vote and the freedom forces and is not subject to merely State. The worship of the State is
of contract but he was too weak to a materialistic dialectic. Life has a nothing but magnified tribalism of
bargain. Gradually after a sustained physical basis too and Islam does not the barbarous period of civilisation:
struggle, the workers came together ignore it. It is cognisant of the fact that “My country, right or wrong.” Fascism
in trade unions and were pitched as the physical well-being of man must wants to build up a powerful State and
a class against the employers. As be assured, in order to make him inculcates the worship of the State as
the employer had a right to close the spiritually free. a super-individual entity: it is virtually
factory, the workers had a right to strike Created by a good, omniscient and the worship of the tribal god or idol.
to improve their wages. Capitalism omnipotent Being, the universe is not Islam too saw the necessity of building
developed its own inner contradictions ethically neutral but is positively good. up a powerful State which should
which we have already mentioned, whose processes generate certain safeguard the fundamental liberties
and mere political democracy failed abiding values. of the people and which should
to create social justice. Capitalism There is no antithesis between the protect itself against aggressors from
also created colonialism and war for spirit and the flesh or between this outside and also protect the weak
markets. When the social fabric of world and the next. As God is one so from the tyranny of the strong. Islam
humanity began to sag everywhere, entire existence is linked together. is a social and political religion and all
different nations produced different The Muslim is asked to pray for well- of its institutions have a reference to
remedies and panaceas to cure the being in this world prior to well-being social justice and social solidarity. No
ills of a confounded civilisation. in the next. Moral causation creates unconditional obedience, however,
It is well known that Islam is not effects here and now as it will continue is due to the State or its leaders and
only a metaphysical belief but it offers to do in the hereafter. Communism governors. Obedience to superiors
a system and scheme of life which repudiates the providential explanation is inculcated .in the interest of law
has logical unity. We will try to give a of creation, and its explanation of and discipline, but this obedience
brief sketch of its ideology. We will see all human history, as of all physical is always conditional on the orders
that it agrees with some parts of every phenomena based on crass being moral. “There is no obedience
great scheme and rejects some other materialism; only modes of production in sin” is a fundamental tenet of
parts. Every system thus far sketched produce moral, religious or cultural Islam. The orders and actions of even
has some vital defect that vitiates it values. The Quranic explanation of the Supreme Head of the State can
either in its very foundations or in the history is quite the opposite of it. It be publicly questioned by even the
consequences that inevitably follow asserts that the rise and fall of nations humblest citizen.
from it. is due primarily to the changes in the In Islam there is complete equality,
Laissez-faire capitalism preached beliefs and characters of the nations. before law. The Prophet Muhammad
liberty and equality in. the abstract Islam believes that when ‘vision fails himself asked others to exercise their
but the State remaining neutral in the the nations perish.’ According to the right of relations or compensation
struggle for existence could take no Qur’an, no real revolution occurs in even against himself, if he had
steps to see that unjust inequalities the life of a people until a revolution inadvertently done them any wrong.
are not accentuated. In delivering occurs in their mental and moral The mighty Khalifa Omar and the wise
society from feudal and monarchical outlook. “Allah does not change the and pious Ali appeared in the courts
tyranny, it created a kind of free wage- condition of a people until they change as claimants or defendants to demand
slavery: the right of free contract and their own condition” (13-2). The even-handed justice.
free vote remained abortive: political Qur’an gives illustrations of materially Islam inculcates government by
democracy was combined with prosperous nations that perished consultation. The Prophet almost
economic slavery. Capitalistic society because of their narrow materialistic daily held consultations with his
in countries like England and America outlook. Not believing In the 4 eternal companions on matters of the State.
We gratefully acknowledge and thank the Institute of Islamic Culture for permission to reproduce Chapter 13 from his book “ Ideology of Islam “ by Khalifa Abdul Hakim.
Continued next month
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