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24 I SPECIAL FEATURE Passion Islam I February 2010
A Comparative
Study of Ideologies
For the background of the fascist truth and values as it proceeds. There To sum it, fascist philosophy
philosophy one has to go back to is no truth that mirrors any eternal revolves round the conception of
Fichte, Nietzsche and Treitschke pattern of reality. the nationalistic, totalitarian State,
among the Germans. Fascism appears to be closer organised as an organic cultural unit,
Fichte preached the divine mission to Machiavelli than to any other strong, self-sufficient and aggressive.
of the German nation. political thinker. Mussolini being It wants to strengthen the collective,
Nietzsche despised love and an Italian appears to have been national ego.
gentleness; for him, Life moved deeply impressed by him. One of
upward by the urge to more and more Mussolini’s biographers relates the Islamic Political and Economic
power. Men are eternally classified story of Mussolini’s father reading Ideology
into masters and slaves. There is no Machiavelli to the boy. After he Having given brief sketches of
universal humanistic ethics; there became a Dictator, Mussolini began capitalistic communist and fascist
is only master morality and slave a thesis on Machiavelli, of which ideologies, we are now in a position
morality. only the introduction was complete to compare and contrast them with
All these influences must have and published. Machiavelli taught the basic Islamic concepts. None of
worked on the Germans as well as the that all was fair for the power and these ideologies can be accepted or
Italians. In comparison with Mussolini, glory of the State and in inter-State rejected as a whole; they emphasize
who was a scholar, Hitler was an relations the tenets of abstract justice partial truths and fragmentary
ignorant fanatic. Some biographers of and morality must be disregarded. realities mixed with a good deal of
Mussolini have mentioned a number Men are naturally egotistic, power- false and untenable attitude towards
of thinkers whose philosophies loving and vicious. Justice is not life. Industrial capitalism, which was
Mussolini imbibed and incorporated natural to the individual, who could accompanied with liberal democratic
in his outlook. He was admirer of the be made to bow to law and force by movements was based on the
pragmatism of William James whose necessity. Liberty would create only laissez-faire economics of Adam
theory of truth is that truth is that which confusion and disorder. A statesmen Smith. This system created rapidly
works, which Mussolini interpreted as can succeed only if he starts on the great wealth and made the nations
“that which works is right.” Bergson is presumption of the natural baseness practising it strong and prosperous.
another irrationalist whose creative and ruthless self-seeking of men. It is But this prosperity was achieved
evolution taught that the ‘elan vital’, not idealism but force which rules all at a great cost. The masses got
the vital urge of life, creates existence, human relations. the right of vote but were gradually
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