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Passion Islam I January 2010 SPECIAL FEATURE I 25
rule in the economic field no less history and maintain the thesis that ‘the liberty, unswerving loyalty to the
than in others; it makes its action felt maximum of liberty coincides with the nation must be inculcated. If national
throughout the length and breadth of the maximum of State force.’ “All history glory is attained by even lowering the
country, by means of its cooperative, of man’s civilization, from the caves to standard of living, a nation should
social and educational institutions and the civilized or so-called civilized man, accept it with good cheer. As Mussolini
all the political, economic and spiritual is a progressive limitation of liberty.” stated in 1934, “We are probably
forces of the nation, organised in their Since the State is of one mind moving towards a period of humanity,
respective associations, circulate and one policy, a single party is resting on a lower standard of living.
within the State.” necessary to make decisions and to Humanity is capable of asceticism
The State, being an abstract entity, enforce them. Decisions are made such as we perhaps no conception
in action practice, the persons who ultimately by an inner circle of leaders of.”
control the State become the symbol and then directives are issued to the Fascism has no definite, logically
and embodiment of this omnipotence. executives. formulated philosophy, but its trends
At the head is the Leader, who can Leadership is pyramidal, at the and tracks may be traced in its general
assert with greater truth than Louis apex is the Great Leader whose outlook as well as in its methods.
the XIV of France ‘ l’etat, c’est moi .’ judgment must be taken as infallible These trends may best be defined
‘I am the State,’ and lay claim to blind and whose will is absolute. Fascism negatively.
loyalty and unconditional obedience. believes in regulated and controlled It is against all democratic, liberal
National pride must be fostered by capitalist economy. Individual and and equalitarian philosophies. The
history and, if necessary, by myth. The corporate enterprises are retained; philosophical basis of French and
virtues of the nation must be extolled at government is not the only enterpriser American Revolutions is repudiated,
the expense of other nations. The myth or employer but is a controller of the which starts with the natural rights of
A Comparative
of the ‘chosen people’ must become direction which production is to take. man.
a psychological reality. Propaganda Article Eight of the Italian Labour It is definitely against the
must be vigorously directed against Charter of 1926 states, “The corporate philosophical presumptions of laissez-
the decadence of democratic nations. State considers that private enterprise faire . Humanitarian doctrines of the
The Nazis emphasized, more in the sphere of production is the most New Testament Christianity also do
Study of Ideologies
particularly, the doctrine of racial effective and useful instrument in the not suit it.
superiority and racial purity. interest of the nation.” The employer Fascism considers all doctrines of
Force is the creator of nations, and the employee must be made to class-war and working class control as
States and empires and it shall work harmoniously in the interest of false. It is against rationalism. Search
continue to be so in the present and the nation. of truth for its own sake or observation,
the future. The strong shall rule over Without creating a socialist experiment, deductive and inductive
the weak and there is no shame or State, certain socialistic measures reasoning have a subordinate place
injustice attached to it. are necessary. The Nazis proposed in human existence. Any scientific or
Communism strives for a universal, the abolition of unearned incomes, philosophical truth must be evaluated
international unity of working humanity the confiscation of war profits, by its effects on the spirit and life of
transcending the barriers of nationality nationalisation of trusts, profit-sharing the nation.
and the differences of race and colour. in large concerns, the extensive In the interest of national glory
Fascism stands for the accentuation development of old-age pensions and the citizens must be drilled and
of national differences, dividing the the improvement of the public health conditioned to accept certain views
world into natural masters and natural through the protection of mother and and reject others.
slaves. Inter-State morality must child. Rationalism repudiates mere
be different from morality among Fascism does not intend to abolish authority without proof; fascism
individuals of the same State. There groups and classes. The national demands blind acceptance and
are superior and inferior races or economy has to devise an economic obedience. Many fascists exultingly
the cooperation of the strong and framework in which national solidarity take of revolt against reason and take
weak nations on terms of equality will replace the opposing interests pride in irrationalism. They emphasize
is a retrograde step in the course of of the groups. The vast groupings will rather than thought, and feeling
biological evolution whose basic law of employers and employees into rather than intellect. Propaganda takes
is natural selection and survival of the syndicates, grouping of employers the place of objective reasoning, force
fittest. and employees into syndicates should is preferred to argument with the tacit
In a totalitarian Fascist State, the constitute the practical machinery for belief that it is might which ultimately
State precedes the individual, while welding the classes into an organic assumes the complexion of right.
in liberal democracies the individual whole. Peace has a degenerating
precedes the State and has his rights It is not the production and influence and continued peace leads
guaranteed by constitutional statues. equitable distribution of the economic to the decadence of nations. War and
The German idealist, Fascist, said goods that can awaken and stimulate struggle, therefore, must be glorified
that history is a gradual evolution the potentialities of man. The strength in the form of race or national conflict.
of liberties. Mussolini and the great and glory of the nation ought to
Fascist philosopher, Giovanni Gentile, become ruling passions in the minds For the background of the fascist
repudiate this interpretation of human of the citizens. In place of individual philosophy one has to go back to
We gratefully acknowledge and thank the Institute of Islamic Culture for permission to reproduce Chapter 13 from his book “ Ideology of Islam “ by Khalifa Abdul Hakim.
Continued next month
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