Towards a green economy Type Planning Regulatory Information Avoid
High density mixed land use development. Parking standards.
Traffic restrictions and travel bans (e.g. in city centres).
Increase awareness of the real costs of travel by various modes. Mobility management and marketing.
National subsidies for low carbon transport city design and planning.
Integrated public transport planning. Land use planning.
Parking restrictions. Road space allocations. Restrictions on the type of vehicles.
Increase awareness of alternatives. Mobility management and marketing. Co-operative schemes.
Public-private partnerships for public transport systems (esp. BRT and lightrail). Removal of fuel subsidies/ taxing of fuels. Allocating fixed percentage of road infrastructure for NMT.
Planning of smart grids. Planning of decarbonised electricity sources.
Vehicle standards (on e.g. emissions). Speed limits. Regulation of production processes.
Eco-driving Public awareness campaigns. Labelling of the environmental performance of vehicles.
Fiscal incentives for cleaner and more efficient vehicles. “Cash for clunkers” programmes (buy- out of old/ polluting vehicles). Fiscal incentives for cleaner fuels.
Table 6: Overview of instruments to support Avoid, Shift and Improve strategies Source: Authors’ estimate
Options for financing green transport Transport is a major attractor of public and private investment (Sakamoto, in Leather et al. 2009), characterised by:
■ Strong prevalence of public-sector funding for tran sport infrastructure;
■ Strong preference by international donors and national governments for the roads sector (particularly inter-city highways);
■ High level of private and informal provision of transport services; and
■ Limited recognition of, and funding for, green tran sport.
To enact green transport, it is clear that financing patterns must be reformed, so that:
■ Adequate funding is provided for green transport in
all aspects (e.g. technology, capacity-building,
operation, infrastructure, etc.) so that all extra costs associated with green transport can be recovered;
■ Resources shifted from supporting non-sustainable forms of transport towards green transport, and additional resources are mobilised and scaled up wherever they are lacking;
Measures on fuel economy (regulating fuel consump- tion per kilometre of travel)
Measures on vehicle emis- sion levels (regulating level of tailpipe emissions)
Measures on fuel quality
Measures for vehicle inspection
Measures to discourage vehicle use/encourage high occupancy of vehicles
Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards in the US.
EURO standards in Europe, with gradually increasing level of strictness for CO, HC, HC+NOx
, Nox and PM.
Phasing out of lead, sulphur etc. from fuels, biofuel blend- ing mandates in Brazil, etc.
Vehicle inspection and maintenance system in e.g. Beijing.
Car-free zones in e.g. Ger- many, partial traffic bans in Mexico, speed restrictions.
■ 50 per cent increase in fuel economy between 1975 and 1995. (Greene 1998) ■ Modelled net increase in jobs (140,000 by 1985). (Dacy et al. 1980) ■ Fuel saving of US$ 54 billion (in 1990 dollars). (Geller et al. 1992)
■ Reduction of transport-related PM (-30 per cent), acidifying sub- stances (-34 per cent) and ozone precursors (-48 per cent) between 1990 and 2007. (EEA 2010) ■ Adoption of identical or similar standards (with time lags) in various developing countries.
■ Reduction in health problems associated with lead and sulphur intake. ■ Reduction in carbon intensity of fuels.
■ Reduction of local emissions by 28 to 40 per cent.(Kebin and Chang 1999)
■ Increased quality of life and regeneration of economic activity in city centres. ■ Reduction of traffic congestion and air pollution.
Table 7: Regulatory measures in practice Adapted from Timilsina and Dulal (2009)
Keys to success
■ Continuous improvement in the stringency of standards.
■ Combination with other measures such as fuel economy standards, fuel quality standards and fuel taxation to further improve effectiveness.
■ Strong political will ■ Continuous pressure from civil society.
■ Proper enforcement and tackling of corruption.
■ Prior communication of the benefits to local businesses and residents.
| Page 2
| Page 3
| Page 4
| Page 5
| Page 6
| Page 7
| Page 8
| Page 9
| Page 10
| Page 11
| Page 12
| Page 13
| Page 14
| Page 15
| Page 16
| Page 17
| Page 18
| Page 19
| Page 20
| Page 21
| Page 22
| Page 23
| Page 24
| Page 25
| Page 26
| Page 27
| Page 28
| Page 29
| Page 30
| Page 31
| Page 32
| Page 33
| Page 34
| Page 35
| Page 36
| Page 37