GNP: Gross National Product * Data are displayed according to regional classification of the Transport Research Laboratory Ltd, United Kingdom
Table 1: Accident costs from various world regions Source: Jacobs et al. (2000)
liver and kidney damage, impaired fertility, comas, convulsions, and even death. Children are particularly vulnerable; they can suffer from reductions in IQ and attention span, learning disabilities, hyperactivity, impaired growth and hearing loss (Rapuano et al. 1997). Hatfield et al. (2010) estimate that the removal of lead from vehicle fuels has resulted in more than 1 million avoided premature deaths per year with annual financial benefits over US$ 2.4 trillion.
Sánchez-Triana et al. (2007) note that for Colombia, the health cost of urban air pollution was roughly 0.8 per cent of the nation’s GDP, amounting to 1,500 billion pesos (US$ 698 million).8
generated by transport can be detrimental to health and well-being, particularly if it contributes to sleep disturbance, which can lead to increased blood pressure and heart attacks (WHO 2009b). Research by
8. Calculated based on 2150 Colombian Pesos to US$ 1.
Lambert (2002) and Martínez (2005) indicate that the economic cost of noise can reach nearly 0.5 per cent of GDP in the European Union.
Human security and accidents The latest report from the World Health Organization (WHO 2009a) confirms that road accidents remain a serious public health issue. Every year more than 1.27 million people die in road accidents, of which 91 per cent occur in low and middle income countries. About half of those who die in road accidents worldwide are pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists, for whom infrastructure provision is often neglected. In Europe, traffic accidents are a major cause of fatalities for young people, particularly men aged between 15 and 25 (WHO 2008).
It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents amounts to US$ 518 billion, and represents between 1 per cent and 1.5 per cent of GDP in low-and middle-income
Box 2: Maritime and aviation emissions
Road transport accounts for the majority of GHG emissions and their predicted growth, but those from maritime and aviation transport are increasing at a very rapid rate.
For maritime transport, developments in world trade are increasing while both the volume and distance of goods are being shipped at a pace that exceeds growth in world GDP. International Maritime Organization (2009) predicts that by 2050,
in the absence of additional policies, emissions from ships may grow between 150 per cent and 250 per cent (compared with 2007).
Despite a temporary slowdown in demand owing to the economic recession, the fundamental growth in the aviation sector remains strong. Aviation emissions are projected to increase exponentially in the next few decades, fuelled by income growth and reductions in the price of air travel.