Figure 6: Modal split by income group in Surabaya Source: GTZ (2002)
divide. In many developing countries there is a vast gap between income groups in terms of access to paved roads, as well as affordable and safe transport.
Investment in green solutions such as public transport networks that are accessible, reliable and affordable can help alleviate poverty in a number of ways; providing people with the means to reach employment opportunities, education and healthcare. New jobs can be created in previously isolated areas, for example, by involving local workers and co-operatives in road maintenance.17
Stimulating the local economy can
also bring down costs and foreign exchange, while lower travel costs and reduced journey times can make essential goods and services cheaper. Safe and clean transport networks help protect the most vulnerable members of society from some of the adverse impacts of transport such as road traffic accidents and air pollution.
17. Such methods could be equally targeted at the construction and maintenance of infrastructure for public and non-motorised transport.