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CO emissions from land conversion for energy crops Tonnes of CO2 per hectare

2

Peatland tropical rainforest

South East Asia - Oil palm

Lowland tropical rainforest

Peatland natural rainforest

Natural rainforest

Logged-over forest

Degraded land

Rubber plantation

-90 697 1 797 Brazil - Sugarcane Land conversion and greenhouse gas emissions

The conversion of high carbon-storage ecosystems, such as tropical forest, savannah and peatland into biofuel plants, can neutralise any GHG emission reductions achieved by replacing

fossil fuels with biofuels, and even lead to a net increase in CO2 emissions.

Biofuels, in the use phase, emit the carbon that has been previously absorbed during plant growth. Inputs during cultivation and conversion need to be accounted for. However, the bulk of GHG emissions are related to land-use change. The carbon footprint varies considerably depending on the type of land converted, the type and yield of the feedstock (tonnes per hectare), as Figure 3.1.4 shows. It is therefore key that any GHG analysis takes into account the entire life-cycle of biofuels, including impacts from land-use change. As illustrated, these CO2

emissions range across different types of land and crops (Figure 3.1.5). Figure 3.1.5 CO2 emissions from land conversion for energy crops 23

Logged-over woodland (Bioshape)

-13

Tanzania - Jatropha Miombo

woodland (wet) (Bioshape)

154

Woody cerrado and cerrado

165

Degraded pasture

-58 Cropland (soy) -12 581 85 854 735

Tropical moist forest

1 580 748 433

87

Brazil - Soybean

Tropical rainforest

Amazonian rainforest

Grassy cerrado

Grassland

23

woodland (dry) (Bioshape) Cropland

75 -140

Source: R.Hoefnagels et al.: Greenhouse gas footprints of different biofuel production systems, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 2010.

Miombo

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