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of GDP (598 tCO2


OECD countries (468 tCO2


less than the world average (652 tCO2


e/US$ million) than the e/US$ million), but e/US$


million) (figure 3.10a-b). Within the region there are differences in the ratio between emissions and GDP; in general, for example, the levels of emissions per US$ million of GDP in the Caribbean sub-region are lower than in the region as a whole.


Taking into account total CO2 emissions,


including those associated with land use changes, LAC rates poorly compared to other regions with regard to emissions of CO2


e/US$ million, compared to 481 tCO2 e per


US$ million of GDP. Latin America emits 1,152 tCO2


e/


US$ million emitted by the OECD countries. This indicates that for each US$ million of GDP, Latin America and the Caribbean is emitting more CO2


Energy intensity in Latin America


and the Caribbean Energy used for each 1 000 US dollars1 produced 2007 Peru


Latin America and the Caribbean


Panama Colombia Uruguay Costa Rica


Dominican Rep. Ecuador El Salvador Mexico Brazil Chile


e than is the OECD. One sees a


high degree of variation, from one country to another within the region, in the ratio of emissions-to-GDP if emissions from land use changes are taken into account (figure 3.10 c-d). Particularly notable among the region’s countries are Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and the Plurinational State of Bolivia for their high levels of emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU).


Emissions increase as economies and populations grow; however, there can also be an energy decoupling (relation between energy and GDP) and a decoupling of emissions and decarbonization (relation between emissions and energy consumption). In this way, an increase in per capita income is achieved with less energy consumption and reduced emissions (ECLAC, 2009). Examining an energy intensity index by region for 1980- 2005 (figure 3.11), one sees that, in aggregate for Latin America and the Caribbean, there is no sustained process of energy decoupling, as occurred in other regions of the world. This is reflected in the fact that, in terms of world averages, increases in income have been accompanied by decreases in energy consumption.


0 0.1 0.2


Kilograms of oil equivalent 0.25


World 0.20 OECD


Guatemala Argentina


Bolivia (Plurinational State of)


Paraguay Honduras


Venezuela (Bolivarian Rep. of)


Jamaica Nicaragua Haiti


0.3


Trinidad and Tobago 0.4


0.5


0.15


Latin America and the Caribbean


0.10


1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Note: 1. Constant 2005, Purchasing power parity.


Source: World Bank, online database, accessed in July 2010. Figure 3.9 27 2005


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