activities, including cultivation, pastoralism and hunting (Lamprey, 2002). A major threat is also the establishment of an estimated 270,000 cattle in the region surrounding the park, including heavy grazing pressure, charcoal production and poaching (Chemonics International Inc, 2003). Without sufficient resources, training and numbers, the rangers have limited chance of protecting the parks, in spite of many im- pressive efforts.
The poaching, however, is not limited to parks in the DRC. Poachers, typically former militias operating from or near refu-
gee camps in i.e. Burundi are also operating and involved in killing of elephants and smuggling of ivory. Tracking of several poachers following killings of elephants in i.e. Tanzania, has re- vealed remnants of yellow maize flour around campfires used by poachers on the move. This maize flour is mainly used and distributed in Burundian refugee camps, not locally in north- western Tanzania (Nellemann and Malata, pers. obs). The use of trackers, and training of rangers in tactical tracking opera- tions, is a central tool in wildlife crime investigations off the road system in the entire region, where traditional military and police tactics are at best complimentary.
Figure 14: As populations are rapidly rising in the Greater Congo Basin, so is the pressure on great ape habitat, and even more, the numbers killed relative to the gorilla populations to supply bushmeat.
Figure 15: Hunting inside protected areas to supply bush- meat is extensive in many regions, and much is transported by bicycle to i.e. larger towns like Kindu. The great apes, sometimes smoked, constitute up to several percent of the total bushmeat, but with devastating impacts on the great ape populations with their slow reproductive rates and complex social structure.