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Figure 4: Militias and collaborating subsidiary companies or dealers are involved in everything from road “taxes” and “taxes” on local impoverished populations to massive scale exploitation of minerals, timber and charcoal.

In February 2000, De Beers, the international diamond market- ing corporation and the world’s largest diamond mining opera- tion, announced that it would stop purchasing diamonds from conflict zones in Africa – an important step toward limiting the market for illicit diamonds in Europe, Japan and the United States. Lack of sufficient systems to monitor the import and ori- gin of petroleum, minerals and fibre-products (pulp and timber) complicate efforts of this sort. Multinational corporate networks have on several occasions supplied loans or funds for arms or

even directly supplied arms or training in return for conces- sions, but most often this is done through consultance firms or subsidiaries with no liability towards the parent companies.

Funds are therefore often used to finance arms with which to secure resource-rich locations for multinationals, leading to the further aggravation of conflicts (Auvinen et al., 1999; Blan- ton, 1999; Craft and Smaldone, 2002; Addison et al., 2002; Nafziger and Auvinen, 2002).

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