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MONUC

MONUCs mandate and authorization is extended to 31st May 2010, with a budget of USD 1,350.00 million USD from July 1st until June 30th 2010.

The UN Security Council has authorized MONUC to use all necessary means, within its capacity and in the areas where its armed units are deployed, to carry out its mandate, including, but not limited to, to contribute to the improvement of the secu- rity conditions and assist in the voluntary return of refugees and internally displaced persons, support operations to disarm for- eign combatants led by the Armed Forces of the Democratic Re- public of the Congo, facilitate the demobilization and voluntary repatriation of the disarmed foreign combatants and their depen- dants, contribute to the successful completion of the electoral for free, transparent and peaceful elections to take place, ensure Protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and United Na- tions personnel and facilities and support disarmament, demo- bilization, and monitoring of resources of foreign and Congolese armed groups.

MONUC is the UN peacekeeping force in the DRC, mainly based in North and South Kivu, consisting of approximately 18,600 troops with main contributors from India (4400), Pakistan (3600, Bangladesh (1300), Uruguay (1300), South Africa (1100), Nepal (1000) and the remaining from among other Benin, Bo- livia, China, Ghana, Guatemala, Indonesia, Jordan, Malawi, Mo-

tax locals for sorghum, beans or corn, and claim taxes for houses with mud or straw roofs (5–10USD per year), and 20–50 USD for houses with corrugated roofs or small businesses.

A UNSC Group of experts estimated that the CNDP had made incomes of at least 430,000 USD in 2008 alone from tax on charcoal from just one area near Virunga National Park, most of it procured from inside the park. It has been estimated that the CNDP in one year from Sept 2007–2008 made at leat 700,000 USD from controlling the Bunagana border control point, most likely much more. The DRC withdrew its official

rocco, Tunisia and Senegal. It has as of December 31st 2009 a total of 20,509 total uniformed personnel, distributed on 18,646 troops, 705 military observers, 1158 police, 1,005 international ci- vilian personnel, 2,613 local civilian staff and 648 United Nations Volunteers. Military personnel comes from Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burkina Faso, Camer- oon, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Ma- lawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Roma- nia, Russian Federation, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Yemen and Zambia, and police from Bangladesh, Be- nin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, France, Guinea, India, Jordan, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Sweden, Togo, Turkey, Ukraine and Yemen.

MONUC concentrates its operations and security to major towns and the road network, but have not had a strong mandate to con- trol borders, so essential in reducing or stopping the financing of the militias. MONUC plays a crucial role in bringing stability to the region. The success of MONUC could however be strengthened further if given the mandate to control the border crossings con- trolled by militias, ensuring the constant financing of the warfare and continued looting and human rights abuses by these groups.

customs agents from this crossing on August 28th 2008, and the CNDP started issuing their own customs papers – accepted by the Ugandan authorities (UNSC, 2008)

CNDP, as well as one of their chief opponents FDLR, were closely involved in the fighting also against park rangers pro- tecting gorillas in Virunga, where 190 rangers have been killed in the last decade, including attacks on the Virunga ranger HQ in October 2008 by CNDP. An additional 2 rangers have been killed in Kahuza-Biega, four wounded and seven kidnapped by the FDLR since 2000.

Figure 2: The pressure on protected areas by militias and refugees in Eastern DRC. 21

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