2
2

8

2

p<0.05
2

2
.009

.009
8
Example 4
2 TPS scores for veterans were
114% higher than for new
recruits (Figure A).
in some instances. As Edward
Tufte suggests in his 1983 book,
by the researcher.
The Visual Display of Quantitative
lute scores, which are presented in
Information, complex and large Communicate It Once
an accompanying figure.
sets of summary statistics can be
In the text, you will tell the reader
recorded in well-organized tables.
what can be found in the figures
Tables can allow the reader to
and tables. Don’t list the same
Keep the inferential statistics in
explore the data when there are
statistics in the text as are already
the background. Some authors
many relevant combinations of
plotted in a graph. Do describe
use a repetitive pattern in which
comparisons among variables.
the general patterns and details
the first sentence declares an
not directly plotted in the figure.
Integrate Nontextual
effect significant and the second
Consider the following examples:
Results and the Text
sentence describes the direc-
tion of the effect. This couplet is
You should be able to read the
Example 3
repeated for each effect. Here is
text in the results section and
Figure A illustrates that the
an example:
know the answer to each question
mean TPS score was 21 (SE
raised in the introduction without
= 3.4) for new recruits and
Example 5
looking at tables or figures. This
45 (SE=5.5) for veteran
The logistic model predicting
recommendation suggests you
employees.
relapse was significant (LR
narrate the story in the graphs by
x
2
parenthetically referencing your
If Figure A is a plot of the
(3)
= 21, p<0.05). Level of
social supports was found to
graphs when describing patterns
means, the text is redundant. If
be significantly related to sub-
in the data graphics. Consider
the text is sufficient to recreate
stance use relapse (p<0.05).
the following examples:
the graphs, dump the graphs or
Higher levels of abstaining
use the text to present another
Example 1
social supports decreased the
perspective on the data or focus
rate of relapse. Joint diagnosis
Watermelon production was on the take-home message.
with internalizing and exter-
23% [95% CI: 20–26%]
nalizing psychiatric disorders
higher in plots inoculated with
was significantly related to
mycorrhizal fungi as compared
to controls (Figure 2).
Example 1 is much more
informative than writing, “The
(See Example 4)
results of the mycorrhizal inocu-
lation are presented in Figure 2.”
Example 2
Subjects with low self-efficacy
relapsed sooner than those
with high self-efficacy (Figure
3). Relapse risk was 2.1 [95%
CI: 1.8–2.3] times higher for
those with low self-efficacy.
Example 2 is a better use of
text than, “The relationship
between self-efficacy and relapse
is presented in Figure 3.”
Figure A. Mean TPS scores by employee type. Error bars are 95%
The examples demonstrate
confidence intervals.
how the text highlights patterns
that can be seen in the graphics
40 AMSTAT NEwS SEPTEMbER 2009
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