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Europe for a considerable time. Research is needed to morphological and molecular characterization of a
establish if the pathology and virulence of N. ceranae is microsporidian parasite of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana
different from that described for N. apis. Some strong evidence (Hymenoptera, Apidae). European Journal of Protistology, 32,
suggests that N. ceranae may be much more virulent, while 356–365.
other data imply that the difference in impact at colony level
may not be dramatic. For apiculture, we must follow the Fries I, Forsgren E. 2008. Undersökning av spridningen av
development closely and collect data on seasonal prevalence Nosema ceranae I Sverige. Bitidningen 107, januari/februari,
and impact of microsporidial infections. 26–27.
REFERENCES Fries I, Martin R, Meana A, Garcia-Palencia P, Higes M.
2006. Natural infections of Nosema ceranae in European
Bailey L, Ball, BV. 1991. Honey Bee Pathology. London: honey bees. Journal of Apicultural Research, 45, 230–233.
Academic Press. Fries I, Paxton RJ, Tengö J, da Silva A, Slemenda SB,
Becnel JJ, Andreadis TG. 1999. Microsporidia in insects. In: Pieniazek NJ. 1999. Morphological and molecular
The Microsporidia and Microsporidiosis, ed M Wittner, characterization of Antonospora scoticae n gen, n sp
Weiss, 447–501, Washington DC: ASM Press. (Microsporidia), a parasite of the communal bee, Andrena
scotica Perkins 1916 (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae). EuropeanChauzat MP, Higes M, Martin-Hernandez R, Meana A,
Journal of Protistology, 35, 183–193.Cougoule N, Faucon JP. 2007. Presence of Nosema ceranae
in French honey bee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Higes M, Martín-Hernandez R, Meana A. 2006. Nosema
Research, 46, 127-128. ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in
Chen Y, Evans JD, Smith IB, Pettis JS. 2008. Nosema ceranae Europe. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 92, 93–95.
is a long-present and wide-spread microsporidian infection of Higes M, Martín-Hernandez R, Botias C, Bailon EG,
the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the United States. Gonzales-Porto A, et al. 2008. How natural infection by
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 97, 186–188. Nosema ceranae causes honeybee colony collapse.
Cox-Foster D, et al. 2007. A metagenomic survey of Environmental Microbiology, 10, 2659–2669.
microbes in honey bee colony collapse disorder. Science, Huang W, Jiang J, Chen Y, Wang C. 2007. A Nosema ceranae
318, 283–287. isolate from the honey bee Apis mellifera. Apidologie, 38, 30–37.
Fantham HB, Porter A. 1914. The morphology, biology and Keeling PJ, Fast NM. 2002. Microsporidia: Biology and
economic importance of Nosema bombi, n sp, parasitic in evolution of highly reduced intracellular parasites. Annual
various humble bees (Bombus spp). Annals of Tropical Review of Microbiology, 56, 93–116.
Medicine and Parasitology, 8, 623–638.
Klee J, Besana AM, Genersch E, Gisder S, Nanetti A, et al. Fries I. 1997. Protozoa. In: Honey Bee Pests, Predators and
2007. Widespread dispersal of the microsporidianDiseases, ed RA Morse, K Flottum, 59–76. Medina, Ohio,
Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the westernUSA, AI Root Company.
honey bee, Apis mellifera. Journal of Invertebrate
Fries I, Feng F. 1995. Cross-infectivity of Nosema apis in Apis Pathology, 96, 1–10.
mellifera and Apis cerana. Proc Apimondia International Lee SC, Corradi N, Byrnes III EJ, Torres-Martinez S, Fred S.
Apicultural Congress, Lausanne, Switzerland, August 15-19. Dietrich FS, et al. 2008. Microsporidia evolved from
Fries I, Feng F, Silva A, da, Slemenda SB, Pieniazek NJ. 1996. ancestral sexual Fungi. Current Biology, 18, 1–5.
Nosema ceranae n sp (Microspora, Nosematidae), Levin ND, Corliss JO, Cox FEG, Deroux G, Grain J, et al. 1980.
Ingemar Fries is Professor in A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. Journal of
Apiculture and Honey Bee Protozoology, 27, 37–58.
Pathology at the Department Paxton RJ, Klee J, Korpela S, Fries I. 2007. Nosema ceranae
of Entomology, the University has infected Apis mellifera in Europe since at least 1998
of Agricultural Sciences, and may be more virulent than Nosema apis. Apidologie,
Uppsala. 38, 558–565.
His PhD thesis was a study of
Nosema apis and he has Williams GR, Shafer ABA, Rogers REL, Shutler D, Stewart DT. 2008.
published numerous papers First detection of Nosema ceranae, a microsporidian parasite of
on this topic and others of European honey bees (Apis mellifera), in Canada and central USA.
importance to apiculture. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 97, 189–192.
He is a keen beekeeper and has introduced practical courses Zander E. 1909. Tierische Parasiten als Krankheitserreger bei
in beekeeping which are popular with his students. der Biene. Münchener Bienenzeitung, 31, 196–204.
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