search.noResults

search.searching

dataCollection.invalidEmail
note.createNoteMessage

search.noResults

search.searching

orderForm.title

orderForm.productCode
orderForm.description
orderForm.quantity
orderForm.itemPrice
orderForm.price
orderForm.totalPrice
orderForm.deliveryDetails.billingAddress
orderForm.deliveryDetails.deliveryAddress
orderForm.noItems
Therapeutics


The potential of cell in regenerative medicine


used to replace missing or malfunctioning cells. This is the principle of regenerative medicine. Because of the enormous potential of cells in both of these spheres, the field has seen upwards of $7 billion of investment in 2018 between the US and EU alone. Since the publication of Shinya Yamanaka’s discovery of ‘Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors’ in 2007, the field of cell therapy has seen an exponential rise in investment, with many researchers and new institutes dedicated to advancing cells as therapeutics. This discovery was considered ground-breaking because it was thought that for the first time any cell could be made from pluripotent cells following develop- mental pathways. Shortly after this, in 2009, the first regulatory approval (EMA) of the cell thera- pies Holoclar


(for corneal burns) and


ChondroCelect (for cartilage defects) built further confidence in the fact that cell therapies would soon become a significant player in the treatment of disease. However, since then, despite the incred- ible amount of investment and research, Holoclar and ChondroCelect have been withdrawn by the EMA (retained by the FDA). Only a handful of


46


other therapies have been approved and none of these are showing any commercial success, at least not compared to the likes of small molecule drugs such as apixaban (anticoagulant used to prevent strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation), or bio- logics such as Merck’s Keytruda (anti PD-1 cancer immunotherapy).


So why have cell therapies fallen short of their potential? Unlike small molecules and biologics, introducing entire cells into the body represents completely new challenges.During a full organ transplant,whereby a foreign entity is introduced in the body, the immune system is activated as it would be during a common cold because of the organ’s immune signature, unique to its donor’s DNA. This unique signature consists of the family of proteins human leukocyte antigens, expressed and presented on a cell’s surface in a unique way akin to one’s fingerprint. Individual cells are no different, therefore placing any engrafted cells from a foreign donor in danger of destruction by the immune system, rendering the treatment redundant. This hurdle was originally never tackled head-on, but rather bypassed by creating autologous


Drug DiscoveryWorld Summer 2019


Page 1  |  Page 2  |  Page 3  |  Page 4  |  Page 5  |  Page 6  |  Page 7  |  Page 8  |  Page 9  |  Page 10  |  Page 11  |  Page 12  |  Page 13  |  Page 14  |  Page 15  |  Page 16  |  Page 17  |  Page 18  |  Page 19  |  Page 20  |  Page 21  |  Page 22  |  Page 23  |  Page 24  |  Page 25  |  Page 26  |  Page 27  |  Page 28  |  Page 29  |  Page 30  |  Page 31  |  Page 32  |  Page 33  |  Page 34  |  Page 35  |  Page 36  |  Page 37  |  Page 38  |  Page 39  |  Page 40  |  Page 41  |  Page 42  |  Page 43  |  Page 44  |  Page 45  |  Page 46  |  Page 47  |  Page 48  |  Page 49  |  Page 50  |  Page 51  |  Page 52  |  Page 53  |  Page 54  |  Page 55  |  Page 56  |  Page 57  |  Page 58  |  Page 59  |  Page 60  |  Page 61  |  Page 62  |  Page 63  |  Page 64