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FEATURE MONITORING & METERING


STRICTER MONITORING REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS


The new monitoring requirements being imposed on Medium Combustion Plants (MCPs) and Large Combustion Plants (LCPs) in Europe is symptomatic of environmental initiatives affecting a wide variety of industries. Here, Dr Andrew Dixon from Gasmet Technologies UK (formerly Quantitech) explains how instrumentation manufacturers are responding to these new challenges


T


he combustion of fuel and waste produces a wide variety of pollutants


and greenhouse gases, so regulators around the world are increasingly imposing stricter emissions limits and monitoring requirements as part of initiatives to improve air quality and fight climate change. Generally, emission limit values are being lowered, the number of parameters being monitored is increasing, and the requirement for continuous monitoring is growing. The growing number of parameters


that have to be monitored means that operators have to employ multiparameter technologies such as FTIR, or purchase a number of analysers to meet the requirements. For this reason, Gasmet UK has developed an integrated systems capability, so that it is now able to design and build complete MCERTS approved monitoring systems, designed to meet plants’ individual requirements. However, one of the pollutants of major concern, mercury, necessitates a specific monitoring technology, and since the emissions limits are so low, it is necessary for this technology to have performance certification at these levels. Mercury is considered by the World


Health Organisation to be one of the top ten chemicals of major public health concern, so there are global initiatives to lower the emissions of this toxic element in its various compounds – particularly from power plants, waste combustion and cement plants. In November 2015 the European


Parliament signed a new directive that imposes emission limits on MCPs. Under the directive, an MCP is any equipment that burns fuel, with very few exceptions, and where the rated thermal input is between 1 and 50MW. By regulating emissions to air of SO2,


NOx and dust, the MCP directive aims to reduce air pollution and lower risks to human health and the environment. It has been estimated that the MCP directive will apply to over 30,000 plants in England and Wales. The controls will


24 WINTER 2018/19 | ENERGY MANAGEMENT


apply to new plants from December 2018, and to existing plants from 2024 or 2029. New environmental standards for LCPs strengthen the requirements of the IED for both reduction and monitoring requirements. The new specifications stem from a review of the Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for LCPs, the so-called LCP BREF. This includes new BAT-associated emission levels (BAT- AELs) and sets new monitoring requirements for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, mercury, and particulate matter.


The LCP BREF applies to combustion


plants with a total rated thermal input exceeding 50MW. However, it also applies to smaller units where they are directly related to a combustion plant.


“The combustion of fuel and waste produces a wide variety of pollutants and greenhouse gases, so regulators around the world are increasingly


imposing stricter emissions limits and monitoring requirements as part of


initiatives to improve air quality and fight climate change..."


This includes the gasification of coal and other fuels, and the waste co- incineration plants for non-hazardous waste (>3 tonnes/hour) or for hazardous waste (10 tonnes/day). Continuous monitoring is required: for


ammonia where NOx reduction by ammonia is employed; for mercury on plants ≥ 300MWth, when coal and/or lignite is used, including waste co- incineration; and for hydrogen chloride when solid biomass and/or peat is used in LCPs or waste co-incineration plants. Monitoring equipment must be


Figure 1:


GasmetCMM continuous mercury monitor


MCERTS certified to perform within the requirements of a permit, which is why the possibility of continuous monitoring should be considered, and both current and future requirements for certified monitoring ranges and levels of uncertainty should be addressed. For these reasons, the recent certification of Gasmet’s Continuous Mercury Monitor (CMM) is of particular significance. The Gasmet CMM has successfully completed EN15267-3 testing using CVAF (Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence). Importantly, this instrument now provides the world’s lowest EN15267 certified range for measurements of Mercury. The CMM is certified for operation across a number of different ranges up to 1000µg/m3, but considering the latest regulatory requirements. In summary, when defining a


monitoring strategy it is vitally important to take future requirements into account (from both regulators and stakeholders) when choosing appropriately certified technology. In addition, for new plants, monitoring requirements should be assimilated into the plant design at an early stage. Expert advice should be sought to ensure that the right equipment is specified in order to optimise the installation, ensure compliance and future-proof monitoring activities.


Gasmet Technologies www.gasmet.com T: 01908 227722


/ ENERGYMANAGEMENT


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