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with all major Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) technologies. VividQ’s software solutions enable challenging computational tasks to run on commonplace hardware.

Alternative technologies In parallel, the display industry has seen progress, with liquid-crystal displays (LCD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and microLED displays. These display technologies have been used in new applications such as 3D TV, wearables, virtual, augmented and mixed reality (VR/AR/MR) headsets and head-up displays (HUDs). So how do these technologies compare with holography?

OLED/ microLED Components Bureau p07_CIE 210x130 ad template 12/03/2020 11:18 Page 1

OLED screens can currently be found in e.g. smartphones. They are effi cient and high quality but are unable to reach high brightness. This is due to the organic molecules disintegrating over time, the brighter the displays, the faster they degrade. This issue presents itself in burn-in: whenever the image stays the same for long periods of time, it gets “imprinted” into the display. MicroLED addresses these challenges. MicroLED displays have achieved brightness of 3M nits. While the technology shows

VR/AR/MR headsets

Majority of today’s headsets work on the same underlying principle to create a “3D effect” - stereoscopy. It is a technique of presenting a separate image to each eye. This however leads to a range of negative effects, including Vergence- Accommodation Confl ict (VAC). VAC occurs when different stimuli are out of sync with respect to one another - where the eyes look versus where they focus. Stereoscopy handles vergence, but is unable to mimic accommodation. Holography addresses VAC by the three- dimensional nature of the displayed imagery. To showcase this, VividQ recently developed a compact binocular holographic headset prototype, with the optical engine as small as 15 cm^3, capable of displaying bright and lively multi-focal imagery.

promise, and undoubtedly triggers excitement, there are still signifi cant challenges to address (like colour operation, mass manufacturability). Depending on various sources, it may be 5-10 years from mass consumer adoption. Holographic display is crucially different from OLED/microLED as it demonstrates images exhibiting true focus. Rather than being a fi xed 2D surface, holography can form images within

the volume. Using lasers, high effi ciency and brightness can also be achieved. VividQ recently demonstrated luminances of 300K nits at the eye pupil (corresponding to around 10M nits at the laser) while still being eye-safe.

While OLED/microLED are a good choice for wearables and mobile displays, there is a gap that needs to be fi lled when it comes to choosing display technology for VR/AR headsets.

Head-Up displays and beyond The VR/AR/MR market is a good proof point for holography, however it is unlikely to be the end application. VividQ is working on prototypes in the Automotive Head-Up Display sphere, giving drivers seamless integration of displayed imagery and the road in front of them. Larger area displays will follow, with a future that any display can and will be replaced by its holographic equivalent.


Components in Electronics

May 2020 21

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