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The increasing pressure from different governments to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2

led to the introduction of new low viscosity oils in the C-categories in 2016 sequences, to help in achieving the tough government targets for CO2 fuel consumption and CO2

emissions, automotive

companies have made significant efforts to increase power output and engine efficiency while reducing the total weight of the engines. This resulted in increased power density ratios of the new technology engines and subjected the lubricants to more hostile environments where these thinner oils had to withstand higher loads and temperatures with more pollutants circulating in the oil. These conditions accelerated oil degradation and sludge formation and required additional performance tests to be developed to enable benchmarking of the lubricants and to ensure that the lubricants can protect the engines without degrading. Therefore, new tests were developed to address these problems and new oil categories with exceptionally high level of performance were included in the latest ACEA 2021 LD sequences (A7/B7 & C6).

. Also, to lower ), as seen in fig. (C), has also

Mid SAPS. These two categories have significantly higher performance compared to other LD categories as they require all the new tests, except for JASO fuel economy test which is only required for C6 and not for A7/B7. Two of the legacy categories; namely A3/B3 and C1 were deleted from ACEA 2021 LD oil sequences as they were deemed to be redundant. Table (A) below shows the different LD categories included in ACEA 2021 LD oil sequences.

Table A: Categories of ACEA 2021 LD Oil Sequences

In ACEA 2021 LD oil sequences several new tests were introduced, however, some of these tests were replacement or upgraded versions of existing tests. Table (B) shown below specify which tests are applicable to each ACEA LD category. In summary, tests acceptance by ACEA were based on the following:

Figure C: Global CO2

Source: theicct - EU_manufacturers_performance_CO2_20180712.pdf Regulations for New Passenger Cars

Latest predictions by International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) suggest that the CO2

emissions has driven the

New Tests: New tests such as Toyota Turbocharger Deposit Test (diesel), Ford Chain Wear Test (API Seq X) and Ford LSPI Test (API Seq IX) are all required only for new categories A7/B7 and C6. JASO Fuel Economy Test is required only for C6 as this category targets fuel economy for new models. All other categories in ACEA 2021 LD sequences can claim fuel economy performance based on Daimler’s M111 FE test.


targets could even go down to 0% by 2030. Although this might sound like a long shot, the ever tightening limits for CO2

automotive industry towards more electrification where ICE (Internal Combustion Engines) is displaced gradually with battery operated vehciles. In the road for full electrification, automotive manfacturers have adopted different hybrid technologies where both ICE and battery opertions are alternating in powering the vehicle.

ACEA 2021 Light Duty Oil Sequences ACEA 2021 LD sequences have two new categories introduced, namely A7/B7 for high SAPS and C6 for


Replacement Tests: Both Daimler Black Sludge Test (M271 EVO) and Low Temperature Sludge Test (API Seq VH) are required for ACEA 2021 LD sequences, however, results of the older version tests are also acceptable, but only for legacy categories and not acceptable for A7/B7 & C6. VW TDI3 replaced VW TDI2 for piston cleanliness, however, ACEA have accepted passing results with TDI2 for all LD categories.

Missing Test: ACEA LD sequences launched in 2016 had a gap in valve train wear protection for gasoline engines. 2021 sequences included (API Seq IVB) which is required for all categories, however, for legacy categories only, ACEA accepted passing results of API Seq IVA.

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