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shown in Table 1. Base stocks with high intrinsic viscosity indices are characterised by their intrinsic lubricity, low temperature fluidity, and intrinsic shear stability.


Biodegradation of hydrocarbons In accordance with the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals #3 and #12, ultimate or ready biodegradation is a measurement of a substance’s persistence in the environment and is a defining element of environmentally friendly lubricants and sustainability. Hydrocarbon-based lubrication base stocks, such as solvent-refined heavy/light paraffinic distillates and hydrotreated heavy paraffinic distillates, are not readily biodegradable [2,3]. Paraffin waxes are only inherently biodegradable [4]. In contrast, esters [5,6] and PAGs [7,8] can be considered to be readily biodegradable.


Highly branched iso-paraffins [9,10] synthesised with a two stage “hydrocracking-hydro-isomerisation” process from Fischer-Tropsch waxes yielded to base oils possess remarkable ready biodegradation of 54% to 72%. Other options for incorporating a content of renewable resources into base stocks include the usage of estolides as “secondary esters”. Typically, hydroxy fatty esters are difficult to use as lubricant base stocks. However, these esters can be converted into estolides, which have an ultimate/ready biodegradation of upwards of 60%.


Summary


Synthetic and biosynthetic base stocks offer a wide range of performance and environmental benefits at the cost of a significantly higher price point. Synthetic formulations are one of the top contenders for satisfying the expanding list of requirements, such as eco-toxicological properties, content of renewables, sustainability, low friction, and viscosity index, for modern lubricants. The evolution of technical requirements, along with environmental criteria, has necessitated the development of biodegradable, multigrade fluids that rival their monograde counterparts. The future success of biodegradable fluids is largely dependent on their ability to address environmental concerns without sacrificing performance or economic feasibility.


Dr. Raj Shah is currently the Director at Koehler Instrument Company in New York, and is a veteran of this industry for the last 25 plus years. He has over 375 publications and is an elected Fellow by his peers at IChemE, CMI, STLE, AIC, NLGI, INSTMC, The Energy


20 LUBE MAGAZINE NO.165 OCTOBER 2021


Institute and The Royal Society of Chemistry. He can be reached at rshah@koehlerinstrument.com


Dr. Mathias Woydt is managing director of MATRILUB Materials Tribology Lubrication, with more than 34 years of experience in R&D and with more than 340 publications and 51 priority patents filed. A recent STLE fellow, he can be reached at m.woydt@matrilub.de


Mr. Stanley Zhang and Ms. Amanda Loo are students of Chemical engineering at SUNY, Stony Brook University, where Dr. Shah is an adjunct professor and the chair of the external advisory Committee in the Dept. of Material Science and Chemical Engineering.


References [1] T. Krapfl, E. Bielmeier, D. Sepoetro, C. Merz: Life cycle assessment of an efficient hydraulic fluid, Proceedings of 22nd International Colloquium Tribology, 28 – 30 January 2020, TAE, Ostfildern, Germany


[2] Screening-level hazard characterization- Lubricating Oil Basestocks Category, U.S. Environmental protection Agency, September 2011


[3] Lubricating Oil Basestocks, American Petroleum Institute, robust summaries of informations by March 24th, 2003 and March 31st, 2011


[4] High production volume (HPV) chemical challenge program – Test plan waxes and related materials category, The Petroleum HPV Testing Group, August 2nd, 2002 and January 21st, 2011


[5] S.J. Randles, Environmentally considerate Ester Lubricants for the Automotive and Engineering Industry, J. of Synthetic Lubrication, 1992, 9-2, p. 145-161.


[6] S.J. Randles, Esters, In: Synthetics, Mineral Oils and Bio-Based Lubricants, chapter 3, second edition, 2006, Taylor&Francis, ISBN 1-57444-723-1


[7] M. Woydt, Polyalkyleneglycols as next generation engine oils, Journal of ASTM International, Vol. 8, No. 6, paper ID JAI103368 and ASTM STP1521, 2012, ISBN: 978-0-8031- 7507-5


[8] M. Woydt, Non-petroleum-based, No/LowSAP and bio-no- toxicity Engine Oil Development and Testing, ASTM-Book “Automotive Lubricants and Testing”, 2013, Chapter 18, ISBN 978-0-8031-7036-0; ASTM stock #: MNL62


[9] W. Song, I.-C. Chiu, W.J. Heilmann, N. Nguyen, J.W. Amszi and J.C.W. Chien, New High Performance Synthetic Hydrocarbon Base Stocks, Lubrication Engineering, June 2002, p. 29-33


[10] D.J. Baillargeon, T.R. Forbus, K.R. Graziani, G.R. Hal, N.M. Page and R.F. Socha, Formulated lubricant oils containing high-performance base oils derived from highly paraffinic hydrocarbons, US 7,067,049 B1, 27. June 2006


LINK www.koehlerinstrument.com


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