just shown you?” T is not only overcomes the space limita- tions of microscope rooms, by creating an environment that is conducive to engaged learning, it changes the way in which students learn advanced characterization techniques. Trainees are sharing in the peer-group experience, not just relying on the one-to-one interaction with the microscope expert. T e opportunities for education research on how students learn most eff ectively in this hybrid environment are currently being explored at CEMAS in collaboration with colleagues in the Department of Engineering Education at OSU. Remote students . The concept of the OSU-FEI Electron Microscopy Collaboratory goes beyond this. The lecture space has world-class audio and video conferencing capabil- ities, and with the OARnet connection instruction doesn’t need to be restricted to students in that room. The students could just as easily be at the University of Akron or in Cincinnati at some industrial or government facility. They can all have the same connection. All are able to see and interact, not only with the instructor, but also with the other users in the lecture theatre or anywhere in the world. Each student can see exactly what’s going on with the microscope. Most importantly, the students get an intimate feel for the operation of the microscope that cannot be gained in any way other than by turning the knobs and watching the result. This has the potential to revolutionize the way these kinds of skills are taught at the university level and provides new opportunities for highly effective workforce development and lifelong learning for engineers and scientists in technologically driven industrial sectors such as materials, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, and medicine. T e entry level cost of the equipment necessary to create and install a remote operation station is relatively modest (<$100K) compared with the cost of advanced electron microscopes. T is provides an opportunity for educators and researchers at universities and colleges with limited resources to gain access to over $40M of advanced instrumentation at CEMAS to support their teaching and advance their research programs. T is is the democratization of electron microscopy, which leads the way to the democratization of science. A new model for collaboration . T e OSU-FEI electron microscopy collaboratory and our developments in remote microscopy provide a new and powerful platform for collaboration. We are transforming teleconferences to “telecollaborations.” T e real-time operation of the microscope allows researchers to connect from diff erent locations, not just to learn and work on their own, but to collaborate. Users can be in one location or in multiple locations; they can all talk to each other and see the screen, and anyone can take control.

Multidisciplinary research collaboration is essential in order to progress in many fi elds of research and to tackle the grand challenges facing the world in the 21st century. Whether it is to address drug development, clean water, sustainable manufac- turing, or climate change, researchers from a wide range of disciplines and from an even greater number of organizations are trying to fi nd effi cient ways to work together. Our facility presented its vision at the 2015 Materials Research Society fall meeting as part of a symposium entitled “Engaged Learning of Science and Engineering in the 21st Century.” Many researchers

2018 September •

are embracing the use of technologies that we take for granted in our regular lives—cell phones and tablet computers, for example—in teaching, learning, and research. Taking advantage of these technologies for collaboration and education is the vision behind the development of remote microscopy at CEMAS, and remote microscopy is only the beginning.


Learning advanced electron microscopy techniques traditionally has been a one-on-one activity for a student sitting in front of an instrument with an expert microscopist. T e OSU-FEI electron microscopy collaboratory allows students in a full classroom to participate in this learning process—each person operating a set of microscope controls identical to those at the actual instrument. T is innovation multiples the number of individuals who can experience advanced electron microscopy fi rst hand. Moreover, students and collaborators may be miles away in another city and still operate the microscope as if they were sitting in front of it. T is is transforming teaching, learning, and research in electron microscopy and is helping democratize scientifi c research and STEM education by allowing all institu- tions, large and small, to access a world-class microscopy facility to advance their educational and research programs.

Acknowledgements CEMAS would like to acknowledge fi nancial support from

T e Ohio State University, the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at OSU, the Ohio T ird Frontier Program, FEI Company (T ermoFisherScientifi c), and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to help create the collaboratory and install remote operation systems at AFRL and University of Dayton. We acknowledge support from NSF (Award Number: 0812348 “Remote Microscopy Station to Provide Direct Access to Image and Probe-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopes for Transformative Atomically-Resolved Analysis of Structural and Functional Materials for Future Materials Innovation and Manufacturing”) to create the remote operation system at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical University.

References [1] T e Ohio State University College of Engineering, “Ohio State, Wright-Patt AFB launch remote microscopy partnership.” ohio-state-wright-patt-af -launch-remote-microscopy- partnership (accessed July 28, 2018).

[2] E Voelkl et al ., Scanning 19 ( 1997 ) 286 – 91 . [3] K Yoshida et al. , J Electron Microsc 48 ( 1999 ) 865 – 72 . [4] M Hadida-Hassan et al ., J Struct Biol 125 ( 1999 ) 235 – 45 . [5] E Voelkl et al ., J Microsc 187 ( 1997 ) 139 – 42 . [6] JF Mansfi eld et al , Microsc Microanal 6 ( 2000 ) 31 – 41 . [7] A Takaoka et al ., Ultramicroscopy 83 ( 2000 ) 93 – 101 . [8] KA Jarvis et al ., Microsc Microanal 16 ( Suppl 2 ) ( 2010 ) 1330 – 31 .

[9] C Leyva-Porrasa et al ., Acta Microsc 23 ( 1 ) ( 2014 ) 23 – 30 . [10] JM Perkins et al ., Microsc Microanal 13 ( Suppl 2 ) ( 2007 ) 1702CD .

[11] M De Graef et al ., Microsc Microanal 8 ( 2002 ) 176 – 81 . [12] R Sinclair et al ., Acta Microsc 18 ( 1 ) ( 2009 ) 33 – 8 .


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