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66 EXTERNAL ENVELOPE


AN ILLUMINATING TOOL Radiance illuminance is a tool that calculates how effective daylight penetration is at any time of the day or on any day in the year


Radiance illuminance


Radiance illuminance (measurement of light level) is a snapshot of the ambient lux level (light) at any given time. This tool calculates how effective is daylight penetration at any time of the day or on any day in the year.


Daylight autonomy Daylight autonomy (DA) is the percentage of the time-in-use that a certain user-defined lux threshold is reached only through the use of daylight. DA is usually given as an annual value but seasonal, monthly and daily calculations can be made. It is the ideal way to achieve optimum natural daylighting conditions for the occupants, predicting when electric lighting may be required and thereby helping to reduce the cost of energy.


Glare pattern analysis


This useful tool calculates luminance (i.e. measurement of glare) within a space. It is used to analyse direct glare or reflected light, such as in sports halls and swimming pools, where it is important to keep balanced light within a space to protect athletes from high contrast light ratios.


The process


Daylight modelling is the way to calculate the most effective daylighting for any type of building. It is calculated using five years’ worth of real world weather files at the exact location of the building as well as information on day, time, position and weather patterns. In addition, a daylight modelling team will undertake this service using data provided by the architect or client. This comprises an indication of light levels required together with building elevations, floor plans and sections.


It also takes into account proposed internal finishes, which could influence


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reflectance, the positions of other windows and any external influences, such as tall adjacent buildings or trees. With this information, the team can look at an individual room or at the overall situation and design the most favourable daylighting solutions.


Case study:


Harper Adams Academy An example of daylight modelling in practice was when Kalwall was specified for the new Weston building at Harper Adams University, near Newport, designed by Michael Hyde Architects. Widely used for cladding and rooflights, the highly insulating system was unique in the way in which it transmits ‘Museum-Quality Daylighting’. Here, the translucent panels have been designed to follow the curve of the laminated timber structure. One of the project’s key design features was the way in which Kalwall has been used to allow and control the interior daylight, remove glare and shadows, yet maintain light levels and minimise solar heat gain. This was achieved using daylight modelling to predict the illumination levels across the floors. The result is that the privacy of the students is preserved while they benefit from leisure and social areas on two levels. This roof solution utilises a 0.56 W/m2


K


U-value panel solution, with only 6 per cent light transmittance. The daylight modelling documented that even with these low transmission figures, lux level requirements were achieved. The main advantage for the client was to bring the G-value figure down to 7 per cent, thereby reducing the solar heat gain to a tenth of that of a standard low E double glazed unit.


Gideon Sykes is an architectural journalist for Structura UK/Kalwall


ADF NOVEMBER 2019


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